The basal angiosperm is a large group of the most primitive flowering plants in the plant kingdom. These flowering plants have many flattened stamens with broad filaments, diverse tepals, many separate carpels, fragrant oils, and spirally organized leaves.
The most basal angiosperms are called the ANITA grade, an acronym of three sub-groups: Amborellales, Nymphaeales, Illiciaceaes, Trimeniaceae, and Austrobaileyales. However, some botanists recently abbreviated it further to ANA-grade since Illiciaceaes and Trimeniaceae orders are considered sub-orders of Austrobaileyales.
The Amborellales order has just one species (Amborella), a shrub or small tree growing up to 8m endemic to New Caledonia. The leaves of Amroerall are evergreen at all seasons without stipules and grow beautiful yellow flowers. Being dioecious, meaning it produces both male and female flowers for a mixed pollination system. Wind and insect pollinators are two main contributors to the reproduction of this species.
The Nymphaeales order consists of 3 subfamilies of aquatic plants, namely Nymphaeaceae (water lilies), Hydatellaceae (aquatic grass/sedges), and Cabombaceae (aquatic herbaceous flowering plants). At present, about 85+ flowering plants have been classified under Nymphaeales.
The Austrobaileyales plant order consists of 100+ woody flowering plants growing as shrubs, small trees, or lianas (woody climbing vines) worldwide. The most famous Austrobaileyales plant is the star anise (Illicium verum).
There are three subfamilies under this order, namely Austrobaileyaceae (1 species only – Austrobaileya scandens – endemic to rainforests of northeastern Queensland, Australia), Schisandraceae (90+ essential oil-producing shrubs, trees, and lianas), and Trimeniaceae (6+ essential oil-generating lianas).