Order Boraginales / Forget-me-not & Comfrey Flowers

    Order Boraginales

    Boraginales is an order of flowering plants consisting of herbs, shrubs, or trees worldwide. Members of the Boraginales have simple and spiral leaves, usually monochasial of scorpioid cymes inflorescence, 5 sepals and 5 petals, and a profoundly 4-lobed ovary because of the false septa. The forget-me-nots, comfrey, and borage are ornamental plants under Boraginales.

    Order Boraginales is placed under the asterid clade. The APG IV system of classification in 2016 places only 1 family, Boraginaceae, under the Boraginales. However, recent studies consider the order as having 11 families[2].

    Boraginales Distribution

    Boraginales Distribution

    The species of the Boraginales order are worldwide in distribution. Boraginaceae (120 genera and 2000 species)[3] are found in temperate and tropical regions. However, there is an intense concentration of species in the Mediterranean region.

    Boraginales Characteristics

    Boraginales Characteristics

    Boraginales Flowers and Reproduction

    Boraginales Flowers and Reproduction

    Boraginaceae flowers are actinomorphic, pentamerousWhat is pentamerous?Having parts in fives or multiples of five., and hypogynous. These flowers are sessile or pedicellateWhat is pedicellate?Borne on a pedicel; a flower characterized by having a stalk is also known as pedunculate or pedicellate; opposite is sessile (i.e., no stalk);, bracteateWhat is bracteate?Possessing or bearing bracts. or ebracteate, and bracteolate. The inflorescence is a terminal or axillary cyme or solitary axillary flower.

    Comfrey Flowers

    The flowers are coiled at first and uncoil as they open. The biseriate and dichlamydeousWhat is dichlamydeous?Having a perianth composed of a distinct calyx and corolla. perianth consist of 5 sepals in the calyx and 5 petals in the corolla. The calyx lobes are valvate and are often covered with trichomes. The white, yellow, pink or blue corollaWhat is corolla?A collective term referring to the petals of a flower. lobes are rotate, salverform, campanulate, or infundibular. These petals are imbricate or valvate. The flowers of the Boraginaceae are usually bisexual, and the pollination is entomophilousWhat is entomophilous?Pollination by insects. Contrast anemophilous (wind-pollination). via the Hymenoptera.

    Comfrey Flower Species

    The Forget-Me-Not flowers[4] (Myosotis sylvatica) are tiny (about half an inch in diameter) with 5 white, yellow, pink, or blue petals. A single flower is found on the central stem. Additional blooms are found in the branching stems. The Myosotis scorpiodes have flowers in clusters. The flowers bent and curled like the scorpion’s tail.

    These two species look similar but differ slightly in bloom time and growing conditions. The flower of field forget-me-not (Myosotis arvensis) is mostly pollinated by the Hymenopterans and small flies. However, the species can also undergo self-pollination.

    Forget-Me-Not Flowers

    The starlike borage flowers (Borago officinalis) are complete and perfect. Each plant can produce a huge floral display. These flowers are in scorpioid cymes. There are 5 petals in the corolla; narrow and triangular-pointed. Often, the flowers are blue. Other varieties are pink or white. Species undergo geitonogamy.

    Borage flowers are red in their early development and become blue when they age. The change in the color of the flower is associated with its pollination strategy.[5] Pollinators of the borage are insects, particularly bees. The reward is nectar.

    Boraginales Example Species

    Boraginales Example Species

    The plants of Boraginales are of limited economic importance. Most of the species are cultivated as ornamental. Others are used as herbs or sources of dyes. The following are the example species of the order Boraginales.

    • Alkanet – The root of the Alkanet produces dye used by the Mediterranean region. The root of the plant is used in traditional medicine. The leaves of the A. tinctoria are effective against multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria.
    • Borage[6] – The flowers and leaves of borage are edible. Its stem (once dried) can be used to flavor beverages. The seeds of the plant produce the borage seed oil. The oil, flowers, and leaves of the borage plant have many uses in traditional medicine.
    • Comfrey[7] – All parts of this plant are poisonous. Comfrey has many medicinal uses. Its attractive foliage and flower also make it an ornamental plant.
    • Field forget-me-not – The species is introduced to North America as an ornamental plant. The field forget-me-not produces essential oils with anti-inflammatory, antifungal, and antibacterial properties.
    • Scarlet Cordia – The Scarlet Cordia is used in landscaping parks and gardens. Its leaves have antibacterial solid potential and are used in traditional medicine[8]. The fruit is edible and also has medicinal uses. Its flowers and bark are also of medicinal value. The timber of the plant is used for carpentry and construction.
    • Evergreen bugloss/Green Alkanet – The flowers of the species are edible. Often, the flower is used as a fruit drink and salad ornament. Also, the green Alkanet is used as an ornamental plant.
    • Heliotrope[9] – The Heliotrope is an ornamental plant in temperate and tropical gardens. The flowers of the plant are sources of oil for perfumery. In addition, the whole plant is used in traditional medicine.
    • Chinese forget-me-not – The species is an ornamental plant. It is also used in traditional Chinese medicine.
    • Oyster plant – The leaves of the oyster plant are edible (raw or cooked) and taste like an oyster. The flowers are also edible. Further, the species can also be used as a garden plant.
    • Lungwort – The lungwort is an ornamental plant with medicinal uses. It has been used to treat several lung ailments.

    Suggested Reading: Pink And Blue Flowers

    Cite This Page

    BioExplorer.net. (2024, July 02). Order Boraginales / Forget-me-not & Comfrey Flowers. Bio Explorer. https://www.bioexplorer.net/order-boraginales/.
    BioExplorer.net. "Order Boraginales / Forget-me-not & Comfrey Flowers" Bio Explorer, 02 July 2024, https://www.bioexplorer.net/order-boraginales/.
    BioExplorer.net. "Order Boraginales / Forget-me-not & Comfrey Flowers" Bio Explorer, July 02 2024. https://www.bioexplorer.net/order-boraginales/.
    Key References
    • [2]“Familial classification of the Boraginales” by Boraginales Working Group. Accessed May 19, 2022. Link.
    • [3]“Angiosperm families – Boraginaceae Juss.”. Accessed May 19, 2022. Link.
    • [4]“How to Grow and Care for Forget-Me-Not”. Accessed May 19, 2022. Link.
    • [5]“Oxford University Plants 400: Borago officinalis”. Accessed May 19, 2022. Link.
    • [6]“Borago officinalis (Borage, Cool Tankard, Cover Crop, Starflower, Tailwort, Talewort) | North Carolina Extension Gardener Plant Toolbox”. Accessed May 19, 2022. Link.
    • [7]“Comfrey (Symphytum officinale) | Queensland Poisons Information Centre”. Accessed May 19, 2022. Link.
    • [8]“Phytochemical, sub-acute toxicity, and antibacterial evaluation of Cordia sebestena leaf extracts – PubMed”. Accessed May 19, 2022. Link.
    • [9]“Heliotropium arborescens – Useful Tropical Plants”. Accessed May 19, 2022. Link.


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