Branches of Biology / Divisions of Biology

    Here are the different branches of biology (or divisions of biology) and their definitions & their related resources.

    • Division of Biology: Anatomy


      The branch of biology that studies the structure of organisms and their parts. It is a fundamental discipline in medicine and biology, providing insights into how organisms are put together and how their components interact.

    • biochemistry


      Explores the chemical processes and substances that occur within living organisms. It bridges biology and chemistry and is foundational for understanding cellular processes, metabolism, and molecular biology.

    • Divisions of Biology: Biophysics


      Applies the principles and methods of physics to understand biological systems. It covers a wide range of scales from molecules to ecosystems, focusing on the physical underpinnings of biological processes.

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      Utilizes cellular and biomolecular processes to develop technologies and products that help improve our lives and the health of our planet. It spans various applications, including medical therapeutics, genetically modified crops, and environmental clean-up techniques.

    • botany


      The scientific study of plants, from the smallest algae to the largest trees. Botany covers plant structure, function, ecology, and evolution, providing crucial insights into their role in ecosystems and their importance for agriculture, medicine, and environmental conservation.

    • cell biology

      Cell Biology

      Also known as Cytology, investigates the structure, function, and behavior of cells, the basic units of life. This field examines how cells interact with their environment, reproduce, and perform their functional roles within organisms.

    • chronobiology


      Investigates the timing mechanisms in biological systems, including circadian rhythms and seasonal behaviors. It examines how living organisms adapt their biological rhythms to environmental cycles, affecting sleep, reproduction, and overall health.

    • Conservation Biology

      Conservation Biology

      Dedicated to understanding and mitigating the impacts of human activity on biodiversity and natural habitats. It aims to protect endangered species, preserve genetic diversity, and maintain ecosystem functions through conservation strategies and policy recommendations.

    • developmental biology

      Developmental Biology

      Explores how organisms grow and develop from fertilization to maturity. This branch investigates the genetic control of cell growth, differentiation, and “morphogenesis“, which is crucial for understanding congenital abnormalities and the development of regenerative medicine.

    • Ecology


      The study of how organisms interact with each other and their environment. It addresses the distribution, abundance, biomass, and health of organisms within ecosystems, as well as the impact of human activity.

    • environmental biology

      Environmental Biology

      Focuses on the relationship between organisms and their environment, emphasizing conservation, biodiversity, and the effects of human impact on ecosystems. This field aims to provide solutions for environmental challenges, such as habitat destruction, pollution, and climate change.

    • Evolution

      Evolutionary Biology

      Examines the origins, changes, and diversification of life over time. By studying genetic variation and the evolutionary processes that lead to the adaptation and speciation, evolutionary biology provides a unifying framework for understanding the history of life on Earth.

    • Genetics


      The science of heredity and variation in living organisms. Genetics explores how genetic information is passed from parents to offspring, the structure and function of genes, and how genetic variation leads to diversity within species.

    • Immunologist


      The study of the immune system and its role in defending the body against infectious disease and foreign invaders. Immunology covers how the body recognizes and combats pathogens, the development of vaccines, and the treatment of allergies, autoimmune diseases, and immune deficiencies.

    • Marine Biology

      Marine Biology

      Examines life in the world’s oceans and other saltwater environments. Marine biologists study the biodiversity, ecology, physiology, and behavior of marine organisms, as well as the impact of human activities on marine ecosystems.

    • Microbiology


      The study of microscopic organisms, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoa. Microbiologists investigate how these organisms live, grow, and interact with their environments, with applications in health, agriculture, and environmental management.

    • Molecular Biology

      Molecular Biology

      Focuses on the molecular basis of biological activity between biomolecules in the various systems of a cell. This field overlaps with genetics and biochemistry and is fundamental in understanding the mechanisms of disease and the development of new therapeutics.

    • Mycology


      The branch of biology that focuses on the study of fungi, including their genetics, ecology, and use in medicine and biotechnology. Mycologists investigate the roles of fungi in ecosystems, their relationship with other organisms, and their potential in bioremediation and food production.

    • Neurobiology


      Also known as Neuroscience, the study of the nervous system and the brain, aiming to understand the biological basis of behavior, thought, and consciousness. Neuroscientists investigate how neurons communicate, how the brain processes information, and how neural disorders can be treated.

    • Paleontology


      The study of the history of life on Earth through fossil records. Paleontologists reconstruct the past environments and evolutionary history of organisms, contributing to our understanding of biological diversity and evolutionary processes.

    • Parasitology


      The study of parasites and their interactions with host organisms. Parasitologists investigate the life cycles, ecology, and genetics of parasitic organisms, aiming to understand their disease mechanisms, transmission, and control strategies.

    • Pathology


      Concerned with the cause and nature of diseases. Pathologists examine tissues, cells, and bodily fluids to diagnose diseases, understand the mechanisms of injury, and develop strategies for treatment and prevention.

    • Pharmacology


      The study of drugs and their interactions with living organisms. Pharmacologists explore the effects of pharmaceuticals and other chemical substances on biological systems, aiming to develop new medications and therapies for diseases.

    • Photobiology


      The study of the effects of light on living organisms. This interdisciplinary field encompasses how light influences biological processes, including photosynthesis in plants, circadian rhythms in animals, and the impact of ultraviolet radiation on cells. Photobiology has applications in medicine, agriculture, and environmental science, exploring both beneficial and harmful effects of light.

    • Phycology


      Also known as algology, this branch focuses on the study of algae, ranging from microscopic phytoplankton to large seaweeds. Phycologists explore algae’s roles in ecosystems, their physiology, life cycles, and applications in biofuel production and environmental monitoring.

    • Physiology


      Investigates the functions and mechanisms of the human body and other organisms. Physiologists study how systems, organs, tissues, and cells perform their functions and respond to challenges, crucial for understanding health, disease, and the potential for therapeutic interventions.

    • Radiobiology


      The study of the action of ionizing radiation on living organisms, particularly the mechanisms of damage and repair in DNA, and its applications in cancer treatment. It also explores the effects of radiation on cells, tissues, and the environment, informing safety standards and protective measures in medical, industrial, and ecological settings.

    • Structural Biology

      Structural Biology

      Investigates the architecture and arrangement of biological molecules, particularly proteins and nucleic acids. This field uses techniques like X-ray crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy to visualize molecular structures, crucial for understanding function and designing drugs.

    • Theoretical Biology

      Theoretical Biology

      Employs mathematical models and theoretical frameworks to dissect complex biological systems and phenomena. This branch aims to predict biological behaviors and understand underlying principles, bridging gaps between empirical observations and theoretical science.

    • Divisions of Biology: Virology


      The study of viruses and viral diseases. Virologists examine the structure, function, and classification of viruses, how viruses infect and exploit host cells for reproduction, and how they can be combated with vaccines and antiviral drugs.

    • Zoology Studies


      The scientific study of animals, their biology, behavior, and interaction with their ecosystems. Zoologists research the diversity of animal life, from the simplest sponges to complex mammals, contributing to conservation, wildlife management, and understanding human impacts on the natural world.

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    APA7MLA8Chicago (2024, February 21). Branches of Biology / Divisions of Biology. Bio Explorer. "Branches of Biology / Divisions of Biology" Bio Explorer, 21 February 2024, "Branches of Biology / Divisions of Biology" Bio Explorer, February 21 2024.


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    8. […] While I have only touched on three of my favorite branches of biology, there are many other fields of study that are very interesting and provide promising careers. Below is an image that illustrates how many different branches of biology there are. To learn more about some of the sub-disciplines that I have not covered, click here! […]


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