Differences between Plant and Animal Cells: Plants and Animals consist the major kingdoms of Domain Eukarya. On the one hand, Kingdom Plantae is composed of multi-cellular (although some are unicellular) autotrophic organisms. At present, it is estimated that the total number of plants is 400,000 while of course, a lot remains undiscovered.
On the other hand, the members of the Kingdom Animalia make up more than three-fourths of all species found on our planet. They typically range from the simplest, like the sponges and corals, up to the most developed one like humans.
Regarding physical appearance, plants undeniably are distinctly different from animals. But what about inside them? Do they differ too? Well, in this post, we will explore the answer to that question!
We will discuss plant cell vs animal cell, everything at the cellular organization level. Check out the difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells as well.
Table of Contents
What are Plant Cells?
Like any other eukaryotic cells, plant cells that have their genetic material enclosed in the nucleus and have membrane-bound organelles. One of the most distinctive features of plants cells is the presence of cell wall apart from the cell membrane itself.
- This cell wall, primarily composed of cellulose, is what provides the whole plant structure support and rigidity.
- The primary function of plant cells is to carry out photosynthesis because of the presence of chlorophyll in their chloroplasts.
- It was once believed that plant cells originated from the endosymbiosis between a single-celled photosynthetic organism and a larger proto-eukaryote.
Types of Plant Cells
Different types of plant cells are specific in performing certain functions necessary for survival. The following are the types of plant cells:
What are Animal Cells?
Animal cells are also a type of eukaryotic cells that contain a “true nucleus” and membrane-bound organelles enclosed together by a plasma membrane.
- Animal cells do not have a cell wall, which typically distinguishes them from other eukaryotic organisms like plants and fungi.
- Scientists believed that the characteristic of having cell wall by animals is a feature that was lost in the past by a single-celled organism that eventually gave rise to the Kingdom Animalia.
- Despite the lack of a rigid cell wall, animal cells have developed a wide array of cell types, tissues, and organs. Animal cells typically evolved to form nerves and muscles which allowed them for locomotion and mobility.
- While being mobile has greatly allowed animals to do a lot of things, animal cells per se are unable to synthesize their own food, hence are always dependent on plants.
Types of Animal Cells
There are different types of animals per se, depending on the type of environment they live in and their lifestyle. Listed below are some of the most common types of animal cells.
What Are The Differences Between Plant and Animal Cells?
As eukaryotic cells, plants and animal cells share many features in common as the presence of organelles like the nucleus, mitochondria, cell membrane and other. However, as both are fundamental units of entities, each has their own feature that differentiates it from the other. Here are the 17 differences in animal and plant cells: