Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) is a culinary herb that is widely used around the world. Fennel is native to the Old World, probably the Mediterranean, as used by the ancient Romans, Greeks, and Egyptians.
Still, it became naturalized and widespread around the world. Fennel being a member of the Apiaceae family, there are 2 varieties of this perennial plant.
One variety is treated as an herbaceous plant (Foeniculum vulgare – Fennel herb) and another as an onion vegetable (Foeniculum vulgare var. dulce – Finocchio or Florence Fennel).
Depending on site conditions, Fennel can grow to anywhere from 20 to 24 inches. The entire plant gives off a pleasant, sweet, and aromatic scent. The upper leaves are finely pinnate, primarily light green in color, and resemble dill.
The leaves typically grow upright on striped, bare, bluish-green stems. During the flowering period, it produces yellow blooms that grow in double umbels. Usually, fennel plants bloom between early July and late September.
Each umbel is 2.4-4 inches wide and can accommodate up to 40 individual flowers.