Order Escalloniales / Redclaws & Laurel Flowers

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    Order Escalloniales

    Escalloniales is an order of eudicotyledonous flowers placed under the clade of campanulidas. Being predominantly distributed in the southern hemisphere, Escalloniaceae plants possess simple, petiolate, exstipulateWhat is exstipulate?Without stipules; Stipule is a small structure of appendage found at the base of some leaf petioles. leaves, regular flowers mostly in racemose, and pentamerousWhat is pentamerous?Having parts in fives or multiples of five. floral parts.

    The typically bisexual Escalloniales flowers possess an abundant supply of nectar attracting pollinators. Redclaws and white alder are among the beneficial Escalloniacea species.

    Escalloniales order has 1 family, 7 genera, and 140 species. The sole family is the Escalloniaceae, which involves 7 genera and 140 species[1].

    Escalloniales Distribution

    Escalloniales Distribution

    Escalloniaceae members are predominantly distributed in the southern hemisphere. Escallonia( 39 species[2]) is mainly distributed in South America.

    • Other species are found in Brazil and Uruguay. The E. myrtilloides, the most widely distributed species, is found in Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and Argentina.
    • The genus Polyosma ( 80 species[3] ) is mainly distributed in Southeast Asia. The sole genus of Valdivia is found in Valdivia Province, Chile. The only species of Forgesia, F. racemosa, is endemic to Reunion Island.

    Escalloniales Characteristics

    Escalloniales Characteristics

    Escalloniales Flowers and Reproduction

    Escalloniales Flowers and Reproduction

    The flowers of Escalloniales are regular, actinomorphicWhat is actinomorphic?A characteristic of the flower exhibiting radial symmetry such as starfish or Daisy flower; capable of being bisected into identical halves along more than one axis, forming mirror images. Opposite is Zygomorphic., often pentamerous, usually bisexual (rarely unisexual), and hypogynous to epigynous.

    • Most flowers are in axillary or terminal racemes inflorescences. Others are in panicles. Some species of Escallonia are many-flowered, reaching up to 800 flowers. The Anopterus, Forgesia, Valdivia, and some Escallonia possess few flowers. Some species of Escallonia have solitary flowers.
    • The flowers have 5 (-9) persistent and fused sepals. The petals are 5(-9), free, primarily imbricate, and rarely valvate. The flowers have a nectary disk. There are 5 (-9) anternipetalous stamens; the filaments are free.
    • Species have 2 (-5) fused carpels in the inferior to the superior ovary. The flowers have parietal placentation. They have few to numerous ovules. Their fruits are capsular (septicidal) or berries.
    • Members of Escallonia have an abundant supply of nectar, attracting pollinators like honeybees, bumblebees, butterflies, and hummingbirds. The Valdivia genus also possesses rich nectar production, inviting hummingbirds and insects to pollinate.

    Escalloniales Example Species

    Escalloniales Example Species

    Plants of Escalloniales provide aesthetic uses, medicinal benefits, etc. The following are some of the example species of this order:

    • Cloven gum box[4] – This species is an ornamental tree used for landscaping.
    • Chachacoma[5] – The wood is used in making native spoons in Ecuador. It is also used in making fences and other woodcrafts.
    • Redclaws/Red escallonia[6] – The species is used as a hedging plant.
    • Native Laurel[7] – This garden plant is beautiful and has excellent potential in horticulture.
    • Queensland laurel[8] – This species is an attractive garden plant for indoor/outdoor decoration. It also has medicinal potential[9].
    • Polyosmo leratii – The plant has ornamental value.
    • White alder[10] – The bark of this species has medicinal potential[11].
    • Valdivia gayana
    • Tribeles australis
    • Dou xian mu

    Cite This Page

    APA7MLA8Chicago
    BioExplorer.net. (2022, January 22). Order Escalloniales / Redclaws & Laurel Flowers. Bio Explorer. https://www.bioexplorer.net/order-escalloniales/.
    BioExplorer.net. "Order Escalloniales / Redclaws & Laurel Flowers" Bio Explorer, 22 January 2022, https://www.bioexplorer.net/order-escalloniales/.
    BioExplorer.net. "Order Escalloniales / Redclaws & Laurel Flowers" Bio Explorer, January 22 2022. https://www.bioexplorer.net/order-escalloniales/.
    Key References
    • [1]“Angiosperm families – Escalloniaceae Dum.”. Accessed December 29, 2021. Link.
    • [2]“A new species of Escallonia (Escalloniaceae) from the inter-Andean tropical dry forests of Bolivia”. Accessed December 29, 2021. Link.
    • [3]“A new species of Polyosma Blume (Escalloniaceae) and notes on a revision of the genus in Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore” by L.G.Saw, Penang Botanic Gardens. Accessed December 29, 2021. Link.
    • [4]“Escallonia bifida | cloven gum box Shrubs/RHS Gardening”. Accessed December 29, 2021. Link.
    • [5]“ESCALLONIACEAE Escallonia – Plants For Use”. Accessed December 29, 2021. Link.
    • [6]“Escallonia rubra”. Accessed December 29, 2021. Link.
    • [7]“Anopterus glandulosus – Growing Native Plants”. Accessed December 29, 2021. Link.
    • [8]“Anopterus macleayanus | Australian Plants Society”. Accessed December 29, 2021. Link.
    • [9]“Cytotoxic C20 Diterpenoid Alkaloids from the Australian Endemic Rainforest Plant Anopterus macleayanus | Journal of Natural Products”. Accessed December 29, 2021. Link.
    • [10]“Polyosma alangiacea”. Accessed December 29, 2021. Link.
    • [11]“The Medicinal Value of Tropical Rainforest Plants
      from Paluma, North Queensland, Australia”
      by Mary C. Setzer, William N. Setzer, Betsy R. Jackes, Glenn A. Gentry & Debra M. Moriarity. Accessed December 29, 2021. Link.

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