25 Most Known Exotic Flowers

Exotic Flowers

Exotic Flowers: By definition, exotic plants[1] are plants that have been introduced to a region or ecosystem where they are foreign or non-native.

More often than not, these species of plants become invasive ones and dominate over the place. This tendency is thought to cause imminent damage to their neighboring plants and animals, and the environment as well.

Did you know that a lot of known cultivated ornamental flowering plants are exotic ones?

Let’s check them out below.

Exotic Flowers

1. Brazilian Pepper (Schinus Terebinthifolius)

Kingdom Order Family Genus Species
Plantae Sapindales Anacardiaceae Schinus Schinus terebinthifolius

Brazilian PepperComing from the plant Family Anacardiaceae, the Brazilian pepper plant[2] is a flowering shrub that can reach up to 30 feet tall. This plant is also characterized by having very bright red berries and green leaves.

  • This plant, which is endemic to Brazil, Paraguay, and Argentina, was introduced to Florida in the mid 1800s to be used as an ornamental plant. However, due to its ability to grow quickly, this plantcan easily dominate[3] an area.
  • It can compete with other nearby plants and obtain light, soil minerals, and moisture. It also can release chemical that can stop the growth of other plants, hence, the native plants are unable to survive.
  • Its flowers, which bloom in September and October, are white in color[4] and become important sources of nectar for insects like bees.

2. Melaleuca (Melaleuca Quinquenervia)

Kingdom Order Family Genus Species
Plantae Myrtales Myrtaceae Melaleuca Melaleuca quinquenervia

Melaleuca QuinquenerviaKnown to be an aggressive invader , the Melaleuca is a flowering plant that can grow in almost any kind of habitat. Amazingly, it can turn any of these habitats into a dense forest that nothing else can live in.

  • Originally, this plant was imported from Australia in the early 1900s in order to help in the drying of the Everdes. This is because of the Melaleuca’s ability to easily dry up an area by using up to five times more water uptake than the sawgrass.
  • This plant, also known as the “Paper-bark“, is characterized by having barks that can be peeled into very thin sheets.

3. Latherleaf (Colubrina Asiatica)

Kingdom Order Family Genus Species
Plantae Rosales Rhamnaceae Colubrina Colubrina asiatica

LatherleafCharacterized by thick and massive vines, the Latherleaf[5] Colubrina asiatica can easily grow quickly in coastal hardwood forests. It has greenish exotic flowers that occur in alternate infloresence.

  • This plant can destroy any habitat for plant and animal life by interfering with water and nutrient cycles. As a vine, it can also grow massively and destroy any ground plants by blocking the light source from the sun.
  • In the 1850s, this Asian plant was introduced to Jamaica and then gradually dominated Florida thereafter.

4. Australian Pine (Casuarina Equisetifolia)

Kingdom Order Family Genus Species
Plantae Fagales Casuarinaceae Casuarina Casuarina equisetifolia

Australian Pine FlowerAlso known as the “Iron Wood” , the Australian pine is a type of tree that was imported from Australia for its timber and shade. However, due to the ability of this trees to flower all-year round, they can spread quickly and easily dominate an area.

  • This tree can also easily grow thick foliage, which makes the plants down below it become devoid of sunlight. Its exotic flowers are characterized by apetalous flowers arranged in catkin inflorescence.
  • During storms, they also facilitate erosion, making it hard for sea turtles to nest.

5. Dutch Amaryllis (Hippeastrum Reginae)

Kingdom Order Family Genus Species
Plantae Asparagales Amaryllidaceae Hippeastrum Hippeastrum reginae

Dutch AmaryllisThe Dutch Amaryllys is an indoor exotic flowering plant native to some regions in southern Africa and the United States.

  • Originally, the genus name Hippeastrum was given by Herbert and was meant to denote a “Knight’s star lily” but apparently, he himself was also uncertain about that description.
  • The exotic flowers of this plant are characterized by having bulb-like appearance and come in colors like red, pink, orange, and white.

6. Seaside Mahoe (thespesia Populnea)

Kingdom Order Family Genus Species
Plantae Malvales Malvaceae Thepesia Thespesia populnea

Seaside MahoeComing from the plant Family Malvaceae (Mallow Family), the Seaside Mahoe is an arborescent flowering shrub that can thrive in a wide range of habitat.

  • Originally, this plant was imported as a drought-tolerant and a salt-resistant plant that can be used as an ornamental plant for gardening.
  • This plant can grow massively and easily crowd out other plants, resulting to the inhibition of the growth of its neighboring plants.
  • This plant, also referred to as the Portia tree[6] , is believed to have originated from India.

7. Anthurium (Anthurium Sp.)

Kingdom Order Family Genus Species
Plantae Alismatales Araceae Anthurium Anthurium sp.

AnthuriumThe Anthurium is an exotic flowering species native to countries like Mexico and Argentina. It is characterized by its very distinct spadix flower with very bright red spathe.

  • Most of the time, Anthuriums grow as epiphytes of other plant species. Meaning, they grow upon other plants and obtain the necessary nutrients, and moisture from them in order to live.
  • This plant is also called as the Flamingo flower or Laceleaf.

8. Pale Alyssum (Alyssum Alyssoides)

Kingdom Order Family Genus Species
Plantae Brassicales Brassicaceae Alyssum Alyssum alyssoides

Pale AlyssumThe next exotic flower in this list is the Pale alyssum[7] , a plant that is endemic to both Asia and Europe and has been introduced to North America.

  • The Pale Alyssum is a member member of the plant Family Brassicaceae (Mustard Family) and is known by the common name “Pale Madwort“.
  • This plant is characterized by having yellow-white stellate exotic flowers and can grow up to 40 centimeters tall.

9. Amaranth (Amaranthus Sp.)

Kingdom Order Family Genus Species
Plantae Caryophyllales Amaranthaceae Amaranthus Amaranthus sp.

AmarnathAlso known as the Redroot Pigweed, the Amaranth[8] Amaranthus retroflexus is an herbaceous plant that can grow up to 2 meters tall.

  • It is easily recognizable due to its magenta-colored catkin flowers that bloom during summer and autumn. Aside from that, it has egg-shaped leaves and somewhat hairy stems and branches.
  • This plant is believed to be endemic in the regions of central, eastern, and north America but has already been widespread throughout the temperate regions of the northern and southern hemispheres.

10. Fiddleneck (Amsinckia Lycopsoides)

Kingdom Order Family Genus Species
Plantae unplaced Boraginaceae Amsinckia Amsinckia lycopsoides

FiddleneckIndigenous to California, fiddlenecks[9] are annual broadleaf plants that thrive in a wide range of habitats from grasslands, vineyards, and even disturbed places like roadsides.

  • When ingested, fiddlenecks can be toxic to livestock. Sometimes, fiddlenecks can be problematic to crop fields as they can easily outgrow the cop themselves.
  • Fiddlenecks are characterized by having very distinguishable flower heads that are curled like fiddlenecks (hence the name) and yellow funnel-like exotic flowers.

11. Bindweed (Convolvulus Arvensis)

Kingdom Order Family Genus Species
Plantae Solanales Convolvulaceae Convolvulus Convolvulus arvensis

BindweedOften referred to as “wild Morning Glory“, the bindweed[10] Convolvulus truly looks like one. Basically, it is a climbing vine that wraps itself around poles or any other objects.

  • The bindweed is easily distinguishable due to its pink trumpet-shaped exotic flowers and arrowhead-shaped leaves.
  • The bindweed is very problematic due to a lot of reasons. The growth of a bindweed is very hard to control as it has a very large root system. Another reason is that it can produce seeds that can remain viable for many years.

12. Horseweed (Erigeron Canadensis)

Kingdom Order Family Genus Species
Plantae Asterales Asteraceae Erigeron Erigeron canadensis

HorseweedAlso called as the “Mares tail[11]“, the horseweed is a summer annual plant characterized foliage growing as rosette around a crown. This plant is widely distributed among various habitats as it can live on agricultural lands, and even disturbed areas.

  • This plant can grow rapidly and is a strong competitor for water. It is also characterized by having daisy-like flower heads.
  • This plant is indigenous to North America and has since then become widespread to Asia and Europe.

13. Lily of the Valley (Convallaria Majalis)

Kingdom Order Family Genus Species
Plantae Asparagales Asparagaceae Convallaria Convallaria majalis

Lily of the ValleyThe next exotic flower in this list is the Lily of the Valley[12] which is a perennial herbaceous plant that is considered to be highly invasive in the regions of North America.

  • This plant is endemic to most regions in Europe but also occur in some Asian countries like Japan.
  • This plant is very toxic so ingestion of it is not recommended. Usually, it costs upset stomach and blurred visions.
  • Its flowers are characterized by having six white bracts (sometimes pink) that are fused to a bell shaped structure. These exotic flowers have a very sweet smell that blossom in late spring.

14. Ragweed (Ambrosia Psilostachya)

Kingdom Order Family Genus Species
Plantae Asterales Asteraceae Ambrosia Ambrosia psilostachya

RagweedNative to North America, the Ragweed[13] is a type of plant species with rough hair (trichome) systems, and distinctive green flowers put up in small heads.

  • The Ragweed indigenous to North America is a type of plant introduced from Europe during the World War I. It is characterized by having both staminate and pistillate flowers which are white and purple respectively.
  • The Ragweed pollen is an allergen that is airborne and thus can travel distances.
  • Its genus name Ambrosia is the Greek term for “food of the gods“.

15. Mayweed Chamomile (Anthemis Cotula)

Kingdom Order Family Genus Species
Plantae Schizaeales Lygodiaceae Anthemis cotula Anthemis cotula

Mayweed ChamomileAlso referred to as the “Stinking chamomile” or “Dog fennel“, the Mayweed chamomile is living up to those names as it has a very distinctive unpleasant smell.

  • Despite that, this plant member of the Family Asteraceae, is very attractive with yellow disc flowers surrounded by white ray flowers.
  • This plant is indigenous to the Mediterranean but has now dominated California, Nevada, and the Pacific Northwest.
  • This plant can grow rapidly and is very destructive to its nearby plants.

16. Caraway (Carum Carvi)

Kingdom Order Family Genus Species
Plantae Apiales Apiaceae Lygodium Lygodium microphyllum

CarawayThe Caraway[14] is a biennial plant that is endemic to Europe and some parts of Asia and North Africa.

  • This plant is described to have hollowed branched stems, long tap root, and yellow umbellate flowers.
  • This plant is known to bear several medicinal properties and can be consumed as boiled (roots), used in salads and soups (leaves), and used to make breads (seeds).

17. Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis)

Kingdom Order Family Genus Species
Plantae Asparagales Asparagaceae Asparagus Asparagus officinales

Asparagus officinalisThe next exotic flowering plant in this list is the common vegetable we know: the asparagus(also garden asparagus). Indigenous to the coasts of East Asia and Europe, this plant has been widely planted for more than 2000 years! Years after, this plant was introduced to North America and some parts of Australia.

  • Contrary to the common belief of being a mere vegetable, this plant has bell-shaped exotic flowers that range from yellow to light greenish dioecious flowers.
  • In Australia[15] , the invasion of asparagus has already resulted to the decline of the number of native plant species. Hence, several modes for biocontrol has already been targeted.
  • The word “asparagus” literally means “sprout” or “shoot” in Greek. This is f course related to the fact that asparagus is an edible shoot that grow on rhizomes in the soil.

18. Spotted Knapweed (Centaurea Maculosa)

Kingdom Order Family Genus Species
Plantae Asterales Asteraceae Centaurea Centaurea maculosa

Spotted KnapweedThe Spotted knapweed[16] is a flowering plant native to Europe and Asia and since then has become very destructive to farmlands of the western United States.

  • This plant is shown to have pink to purple flowers that are surrounded by green bracts with black tips.
  • This Spotted knapweed is a very competitive plant as its tap root can suck water up faster than its neighboring plants. In addition to that, it releases a toxin from its roots that can somehow slow down the growth of nearby plants.

19. Bull Thistle (Cirsium Vulgare)

Kingdom Order Family Genus Species
Plantae Asterales Asteraceae Cirsium Cirsium vulgare

Bull ThistleThe Bull thistle Cirsium vulgare is a biennial flowering plant indigenous to Asia and Europe but was imported to North America. This plant, commonly found in vacant lots, and roadsides, is sometimes problematic due to its wide infestations.

  • Interestingly, this plant prefers disturbed areas with moist to dry soils. However, it can also dominate the forests and hinder the growth of native plants.
  • This plant is easily recognized due to its pink magenta flower heads with deeply lobed and hairy leaves.

20. American Lotus (Nelumbo Lutea)

Kingdom Order Family Genus Species
Plantae Proteales Nelumbonaceae Nelumbo Nelumbo lutea

American LotusCommonly found in the wet regions of the United States, the American lotus is a type of aquatic flowering plant characterized by huge circular leaves linked to the central flower.

  • The exotic flowers contain both the stamen and pistil but only blossom for a few days. Interestingly, this plant (specifically its leaves) have the ability to repel water due to its somewhat waxy properties.
  • As an invasive[17] species, it can easily dominate the wetlands and prevent the growth pf other aquatic plants.

21. Filaree (Erodium Cicutarium)

Kingdom Order Family Genus Species
Plantae Geraniales Geraniaceae Erodium Erodium cicutarium

FilareeWidespread throughout California and other parts of North America, the Filaree plant[18] is a low-growing flowering plant with broad foliage. Its flowers have five, pink to red petals and leaves forming rosette which are very close to the ground.

  • Interestingly, this plant is edible which has a flavor likened to parsley when picked young. In addition to that, these exotic flowers are also good source of honey.
  • This plant originated from Europe and Asia and was established in North America in the 1760s.

22. St. John’s Wort (Hypericum Perforatum)

Kingdom Order Family Genus Species
Plantae Malpighiales Hypericaceae Hypericum Hypericum perforatum

St John's Wort The St. John’s wort Hypericum perforatum is a flowering plant indigenous to Europe and Asia but has already been naturalized to temperate regions as an invasive species.

  • The name “St. John’s wort” is derived from its blooming and harvesting season which often occurs on St. John’s Day (June 24).
  • The exotic flowers of this plant come in cyme inflorescence at the upper end of branches and blossom in the late spring early summer.
  • In medicine, the St. John’s wort is very popular for treating depression[19].

23. Scentless Chamomile (Tripleurospermum inodorum)

Kingdom Order Family Genus Species
Plantae Asterales Asteraceae Tripleurospermum Tripleurospermum inodorum

Scentless ChamomileIn the 1930s, the Scentless Chamomile[20] was introduced from Europe to Canada where it has become invasive.

  • At present, the overproliferation of the Scentless Chamomile is a widespread problem in Alberta as these plants have already dominated the roadsides and croplands.
  • This flowering plant has very distinctive finely divided leaves and numerous flowers located on each flowering stems.
  • The Scentless Chamomile is a very aggressive plant can can grow rapidly once it has been established on soils.

24. Timothy (Phleum Pratense)

Kingdom Order Family Genus Species
Plantae Poales Poaceae Phleum Phleum pratense

Timothy FlowerThe Timothy[21] is a grass indigenous to Europe, North Africa, and Asia and was since then naturalized to different parts of America.

  • The name of this plant came from Timothy Hanson who promoted it as a pasture grass in the 18th century.
  • It is characterized by having these exotic flowers (with pink stamen) arranged in spike. This plant becomes very distinctive especially during its blooming season when it produces its long narrow seed head.
  • True to what Hanson had promoted, the Timothy is important for grazing animals like horses and sheep, and other animals as well.

25. Calla Lily (Salvinia Molesta)

Kingdom Order Family Genus Species
Plantae Alismatales Araceae Zantadeschia Zantadeschia aethiopica

Calla LilyLast but not the least is the Calla lily[22] Zantadeschia aethiopica which is endemic to the regions of southern Africa. This flowering plant usually lives in relatively cold temperatures and in wet areas like ponds or riverbanks.

  • The yellow central flowers, which occur in spadix, are surrounded by white-colored spathe. However, some species of Zantadeschia also have orange or purple bracts.
  • Despite its beauty, this flowering plant is extremely poisonous specially when ingested.

Now, which among the mentioned exotic flowers did you find most interesting?

Cite this article as: "25 Most Known Exotic Flowers," in Bio Explorer, March 25, 2017, https://www.bioexplorer.net/exotic-flowers.html/.

References

  • [1]“Exotic Plants | Horticulture and Soil Science Wiki | Fandom powered by Wikia”. Accessed March 23, 2017. Link.
  • [2]“Schinus terebinthifolius – UF/IFAS Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants”. Accessed March 23, 2017. Link.
  • [3]Exotic Species List – nps.gov. Accessed March 23, 2017. Link.
  • [4] – “Brazil Pepper.” The Department of Environment and Natural Resources. Accessed March 25, 2017. Link.
  • [5]“Colubrina asiatica – UF/IFAS Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants”. Accessed March 23, 2017. Link.
  • [6]“Portia Tree – Thespesia populnea – Details – Encyclopedia of Life”. Accessed March 23, 2017. Link.
  • [7]“Alyssum alyssoides(pale alyssum):Go Botany”. Accessed March 23, 2017. Link.
  • [8]“Amaranthus retroflexus (redroot pigweed)”. Accessed March 23, 2017. Link.
  • [9] – “Fiddlenecks (Amsinckia spp.).” Weed Gallery: Fiddlenecks–UC IPM. Accessed March 25, 2017. Link.
  • [10]“Controlling Bindweed: How To Get Rid Of Bindweed”. Accessed March 23, 2017. Link.
  • [11]“Weed Gallery: Horseweed–UC IPM”. Accessed March 23, 2017. Link.
  • [12]“Lily of the Valley: Poisonous Landscaping Plants”. Accessed March 23, 2017. Link.
  • [13]“ragweed | plant genus | Britannica.com”. Accessed March 23, 2017. Link.
  • [14]“Caraway — Herbs — Penn State Extension”. Accessed March 23, 2017. Link.
  • [15] – “Biological control of Asparagus asparagoides may favour other exotic species” Accessed March 23, 2017. Link.
  • [16]“Spotted knapweed – Invasive species: Minnesota DNR”. Accessed March 23, 2017. Link.
  • [17]“American Lotus – Untamed Science”. Accessed March 23, 2017. Link.
  • [18]“Weed Gallery: Filarees–UC IPM”. Accessed March 23, 2017. Link.
  • [19]“St. John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum) Background – Mayo Clinic”. Accessed March 23, 2017. Link.
  • [20]“Scentless Chamomile: Biology and Control”. Accessed March 23, 2017. Link.
  • [21]“What Is Timothy Grass – Uses And Benefits Of Timothy Grass”. Accessed March 23, 2017. Link.
  • [22] – “Calla lily (Zantedeschia aethiopica).” Heritage Garden. Accessed March 25, 2017. Link.
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