Order Picramniales / Bitterbush Flowers


    Order Picramniales

    The Bitterbush order, Picramniales, are trees and shrubs with a neotropical distribution. Members of this order have bitter bark, alternate and compound leaves, alternate or sub-opposite leaflets, unisexual flowers, and non-arillate and non-endospermic seeds.

    Most of the members of the Picramniales are vital for pharmaceutical purposes, such as the Picramnia pentandra and the Picramnia latifola.

    Picramniales Families

    Picramniales Families

    Picramniales is a small flowering order that belongs to malvids (eurosids II). It has only 1 family, 4 genera, and 50 species. The sole family of Picramniales is Picramniaceae[1].

    Picramniales Distribution

    Picramniales Distribution

    The members of the Picramniales are neotropical in distribution. The genus Alvaradoa members are found in Florida, Central America, and Bahama. There are also species found from Bolivia to Argentina.

    The species of the genus Picramnia are found in the southeast USA, Caribbean, and Central and South America. The plants of the Nothotalisia genus are found in Panama and northwest South America. The only species of the genus Aenigmanu are found in Peru, Manu National Park, next to Brazil.

    Picramniales Characteristics

    Picramniales Characteristics

    Picramniales Flowers and Reproduction

    Picramniales Flowers and Reproduction

    Picramniales flowers are minute, actinomorphicWhat is actinomorphic?A characteristic of the flower exhibiting radial symmetry such as starfish or Daisy flower; capable of being bisected into identical halves along more than one axis, forming mirror images. Opposite is Zygomorphic., and unisexual. These flowers are in the inflorescences of terminal or simple lateral racemes, pendent, or compound thyrsesWhat is thyrses?A panicle-like inflorescence which has one main indeterminate axis and many lateral axes which are determinate (example: Lilac).

    Picramniales Example Species

    Picramniales Example Species

    Most of the representatives of Picramniales are abundant in secondary metabolites[3]. Some of the members are vital for pharmaceutical purposes.

    • Florida bitterbush – This plant is usually used for landscaping purposes. The Florida bitterbush is also used as a tonic.
    • Mexican alvaradoa – Mexican alvaradoa is an excellent small tree or shrub for landscaping.
    • Picramnia antidesma – The root bark of P. antidesma[4] is used to treat malaria in the tropical regions of America.
    • Cedrinho – The Cedrinho tree is commonly harvested for its wood (fuel or charcoal).
    • Picramnia pentandra – P. pentandra is used as an ornamental plant in Florida and Cuba. In addition, it is harvested in the wild for medicinal purposes. Wood is also used as fuel. In Agroforestry, the P. pentandra is used as pioneering natural species for woodland restoration.
    • Picramnia latifola[5] The P. latifola species possesses secondary metabolites known to have medicinal effects.
    • Picramnia guianensis – The plant leaves are used as a source of dye. The bark is used in traditional medicine.
    • Aenigmanu alvareziae
    • Alvaradoa lewisii
    • Nothotalisia cancellate

    Cite This Page

    APA7MLA8Chicago
    BioExplorer.net. (2022, June 29). Order Picramniales / Bitterbush Flowers. Bio Explorer. https://www.bioexplorer.net/order-picramniales/.
    BioExplorer.net. "Order Picramniales / Bitterbush Flowers" Bio Explorer, 29 June 2022, https://www.bioexplorer.net/order-picramniales/.
    BioExplorer.net. "Order Picramniales / Bitterbush Flowers" Bio Explorer, June 29 2022. https://www.bioexplorer.net/order-picramniales/.
    Key References
    • [1]“Picramniales < Malvids (Eurosids II, Malvidae) << Eurosids (true rosids) <<< Rosids @ Wellness Advocate . com". Accessed May 28, 2022. Link.
    • [2]“Picramniaceae – FNA”. Accessed May 28, 2022. Link.
    • [3]“First Phylogeny of Bitterbush Family, Picramniaceae (Picramniales) – PMC”. Accessed May 28, 2022. Link.
    • [4]“Cytotoxic anthraquinone derivatives from Picramnia antidesma – PubMed”. Accessed May 28, 2022. Link.
    • [5]“Anti-plasmodial effect of plant extracts from Picrolemma huberi and Picramnia latifolia | Malaria Journal | Full Text”. Accessed May 28, 2022. Link.

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