Order Zygophyllales / Creosote Bush Flowers

    Order Zygophyllales

    Order Zygophyllales contains herbs, shrubs, trees, and hemiparasitesWhat is hemiparasites?A parasitic plant containing chlorophyll and therefore partly self-sustaining as in mistletoe. (rare) limited to tropical or temperate dry or saline regions. The members of the Zygophyllales often have swollen nodes and opposite, resinous, and stipulate leaves.

    The Zygophyllales flowers are bisexual, with often 5 sepals, 5 petals, 10 stamens, 5 carpels, and a superior ovary. The creosote bush, chaparral, Verawood, and the rhatany are known examples of the Zygophyllales order.

    Zygophyllales Families

    Creosote Bush

    APG IV classification system places two families under the Zygophyllales order of dicotyledonous flowering plants.

    • Zygophyllaceae (Bean-caper family)
    • Krameriaceae (Rhatany family)

    Zygophyllales Distribution

    Creosote Bush Flower

    Plants of Zygophyllales are primarily limited to tropical or temperate arid or saline regions.

    • The members of the Zygophyllaceae family (22 genera and 285 species)[1] are distributed in dry and warm/cool temperate. The species of the family are also tropical.
    • The plants of Krameriaceae (1 genus and 18 species) are found in the dry and warm regions of the Americas.

    Zygophyllales Characteristics

    Creosote Bush Flowers

    • Plant type: The species of Zygophyllales are herbs, trees, or shrubs. Rare plants are hemiparasites.
    • Stems: The stems of the plants often have swollen nodes. Some taxa have thorny stems.
    • Leaves: Most leaves are opposite, resinous, and stipulate.
    • Flowers and Inflorescences: The flowers are bisexual. These flowers are solitary, in cyme, or raceme.
    • Sepals and Petals: The flowers of the Zygophyllales have 5 sepals and 5 petals.
    • Stamens and carpels: Most stamens are 10; biseriate. Other species are 4-5; uniseriate. The majority of the species have 5 carpels.
    • Ovary and Fruits: The ovary of the members is superior. The Zygophyllales fruit is a capsule or a berry.
    • Seeds: Most seeds do not have endospermWhat is endosperm?An embryonic nutritive tissue formed during double fertilization by the fusion of a sperm with the polar nuclei..

    Zygophyllales Flowers and Reproduction

    Rhatany Flowers

    The flowers of Zygophyllaceae are actinomorphicWhat is actinomorphic?A characteristic of the flower exhibiting radial symmetry such as starfish or Daisy flower; capable of being bisected into identical halves along more than one axis, forming mirror images. Opposite is Zygomorphic. and usually bisexual. They are solitary or in a cyme or raceme. The usually biseriate perianth is composed of often 5 imbricateWhat is imbricate?overlap or cause to overlap; in botany terms, scales, sepals, or plates having adjacent edges overlapping; with margins of structures overlapping like shingles on a roof. or valvateWhat is valvate?Sepals having adjacent edges abutting rather than overlapping; opening by valves; edges of structures coming together so that the margins touch but won't overlap. sepals and 5 valvate, convolute, or imbricate petals.

    Violet Rhatany

    Zygophyllales Family Differences


    Zygophyllales Example Species

    • Members of the family are primarily shrubs or trees. Other species are herbs.
    • Most leaves are opposite, resinous, and stipulate. Other species have leaves that are paripinnate, geminate, and trifoliate.
    • The flowers are commonly actinomorphic and bisexual. The flowers are solitary, in cymes, or raceme.
    • Usually, there are 5 sepals in the calyx and 5 petals in the corolla.
    • Typically, the stamens are biseriate and usually 10. However, there are often 5 carpels in the syncarpous gynoecium.
    • The Zygophyllaceae ovary is superior, and the fruit is a capsule or a schizocarp. In rare cases, the fruit is a drupe or a berry.
    • The seeds have an oily endosperm. Some lack endosperm.


    Zygophyllales Example Species

    Many species of Zygophyllales are economically and ecologically important. The following are the example species of this order.

    • Creosote bush: Creosote bush is a traditional herbal medicine among Native Americans.
    • Chaparral: The chaparral is used as folk medicine with anti-inflammatory[5] properties.
    • Verawood: The Verawood is used for landscaping applications. The wood is also used similarly to that of Lignum vitae.
    • Arizona poppy: The seeds of the Arizona Poppy are used as dove and quail food in the wildlife. The Arizona poppies are also ideal as garden plants. Is Poppy one of the August Flowers?
    • Warty caltrop: The seeds are bird food in the wildlife.
    • False puncture vine: The leaves of the False puncture vine are edible when cooked. The plant has many medicinal uses. The False puncture vine is also used as a garden plant.
    • Virgin’s mantle: The plant has a chemical composition with medical significance.
    • White rhatany: White rhatany is an essential forage for wildlife in its natural habitat. It also has ethnobotanical uses[6].
    • Peruvian rhatany: The root extracts are used in the wine industry. Furthermore, the roots manifest great medicinal value.
    • Roughbark lignum-vitae: The resin of the tree is used as a flavoring. The parts of the plant (the wood and the resin) are used in traditional medicine. Wood has many applications because it is dense, durable, hard, tough, and close-grained.

    Suggested Reading: Flowers With Yellow Centers

    Cite This Page

    BioExplorer.net. (2024, April 14). Order Zygophyllales / Creosote Bush Flowers. Bio Explorer. https://www.bioexplorer.net/order-zygophyllales/.
    BioExplorer.net. "Order Zygophyllales / Creosote Bush Flowers" Bio Explorer, 14 April 2024, https://www.bioexplorer.net/order-zygophyllales/.
    BioExplorer.net. "Order Zygophyllales / Creosote Bush Flowers" Bio Explorer, April 14 2024. https://www.bioexplorer.net/order-zygophyllales/.
    Key References
    • [1]“Zygophyllales”. Accessed May 28, 2022. Link.
    • [2]“Backyard Gardener – The Creosote Bush -“. Accessed May 28, 2022. Link.
    • [3]“Krameriaceae – an overview | ScienceDirect Topics”. Accessed May 28, 2022. Link.
    • [4]“Angiosperm families – Krameriaceae Dum.”. Accessed May 28, 2022. Link.
    • [5]“Larrea divaricata volatilome and antimicrobial activity against Monilinia fructicola – ScienceDirect”. Accessed May 28, 2022. Link.
    • [6]“BRIT – Native American Ethnobotany Database”. Accessed May 28, 2022. Link.


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