Types of Doctors and Their Specializations

    Types of Doctors

    Types of Doctors: There are two significant categories of doctors, namely primary care and specialists. You will first need to see your primary care physician for an initial diagnosis when you have an ailment. If the primary doctor cannot diagnose the problem or needs further analysis, they would refer to specialists.

    Within the primary care realm, these are common types of doctors, namely family care physicians, dentists, internal medicine doctors, pediatricians, and gynecologists.

    Under the specialist category, different kinds of doctors are based on a branch of medicine.

    Health care systemIn the United States, millions of doctors serving the country in different branches of medical specialties. Aspiring students must go through a 4-year graduate program from an accredited medical school after finishing college. Then, the graduates must complete the residency training program for about 3-7 years, depending upon the specialization.

    Here is the complete list of all types of doctors within the medical profession and what they do:

    Types of Medical Doctors

    • allergist


      An allergist is a healthcare professional who specializes in identifying and treating asthma, inherited immunodeficiency diseases, autoimmune diseases, allergies due to animals, foods, or medications, and related diseases.

      In addition to that, an allergist is also trained in determining the factors that trigger such diseases.

    • Anathesialogist


      Anaesthesiologists play a major decisive role in pain management. As their name suggests, anesthesiologists are physicians trained in anesthesiology or the science of administering anesthesia to patients during surgeries. Before (most) surgeries, anesthesia is given to relieve the pain or put them to sleep during the operation.

      Pain management specialist is a medical doctor who helps patients with ongoing pain management for chronic conditions.

    • Andrologist


      An Andrologist is the male equivalent of a gynecologist; they are concerned with helping their male patients with urological, sexual, and reproductive health that are unique to men.

      Interestingly, unlike gynecology, which requires plenty of medical board certification programs worldwide, andrology has no such requirements. Andrology has only been studied as a separate specialty since the late 1960s.

    • cardiologist


      Cardiologists are medical professionals that examine and treat illnesses associated with the cardiovascular system which includes the heart and blood vessels.They also help their patients learn about their risk factors for heart disease and determine what treatment or procedure they should undergo.

      A pediatric cardiologist is a specialized physician within cardiology who treats and diagnoses heart complications in children.

      Cardiac surgeons who specialize in cardiac catheterization, angioplasty, and stenting treatment and diagnosis are usually called Interventional cardiologists.

    • Cardiac Electrophysiologist

      Cardiac Electrophysiologist

      A Cardiac Electrophysiologist (EP) is a cardiologist who is specialized in the heart’s electrical system that includes treating heart rhythm issues such as atrial fibrillation.

      Cardiac electrophysiology is viewed as a sub-discipline of cardiology and internal medicine (only from the 1970s) in many countries. It typically requires 2+ years of internship training after a general cardiology fellowship.

    • dermatologist


      Dermatologists are health professionals primarily focused on diagnosing conditions associated with the skin, hair, and nails.

      This type of doctor treats various skin disorders, namely acne, skin cancer, and over 3000 skin conditions.

      Aside from that, they could also provide several treatments that deal with everything from acne to anti-aging procedures.

    • Dietitian


      A dietitian is a specialist in human nutrition and the regulation of diet, also known as dietetics. A dietitian recommends nutrition based on the patient’s medical conditions (such as eating disorders) and individual needs. Aspiring students who want to become a dietitian should complete medical degrees and obtain licenses to assess, diagnose, and treat nutritional malfunctions.

    • Emergency Doctor

      Emergency Room (ER) Doctor

      Emergency doctors care for patients with immediate medical attention such as acute illnesses or injuries from accidents, and they would undertake acute interventions to stabilize the patient.

      The emergency physician is a professional in high-level cardiac life support techniques such as resuscitation, vital signs, trauma care in fractures and soft tissue injuries, and supervision of other life-threatening conditions.

    • null


      An endocrinologist is a medical doctor under the internal medicine category who studies the diseases that affect the endocrine system, which is responsible for secreting and regulating the body’s hormone levels.

      Reproductive Endocrinologist treats both women and men with infertility issues.

    • null


      An epidemiologist studies the causes and patterns of diseases in a population or area and makes efforts to prevent epidemics/pandemics from reoccurring.

      They are more of scientists rather than doctors who specialize in the highly viral epidemic illness (such as new diseases) and provide or develop cures and also modes of prevention of diseases with vaccinations.

    • Family Medicine Physician

      Family Medicine Physician

      Family physicians who specialize in family medicine are knowledgeable and can treat various medical diseases of patients of all ages. These doctors provide preventive care for patients, which includes annual checkups, periodic immunizations, contraception, and allergy medications.

      A physician specialized in this field is a pediatrician and an internist combined into one. They also referred as hospitalists.

    • gastroenterologist


      As their name suggests, gastroenterologists are medical professionals focused on the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the gastrointestinal (digestive system) tract which includes the stomach, small and large intestines, pancreas, and liver.

      Gastroenterologists also perform a variety of procedures in colonoscopy, endoscopy, ERCP, endoscopic ultrasound, and liver-biopsy as well.

    • geriatrician


      A Geriatrician takes care of older adults. Because of their declining immunity that arises with senility and their multiple health complications, the elderly need to be highly taken care of. The main difference between geriatrics, the care of aged people, and gerontology is the study of the aging process. There are different types of geriatricians within Geriatrics based on the diseases in elders.

    • Hyperbaric Physician

      Hyperbaric Physician

      Hyperbaric physicians/doctors are medical doctors trained in hyperbaric medicine, such as providing hyperbaric Oxygen (HBO – higher pressure of Oxygen than what we see in the air around us) therapy for conditions such as decompression illness and carbon monoxide poisoning from fire fumes.

      Hyperbaric medicine covers hyperbaric oxygen treatment, which is at the atmospheric pressure to increase the oxygen flow in the body.

    • null


      A hematologist is a specialist in hematology, which is the study of blood, blood-forming organs, and blood-related diseases (sickle cell).

      Typical hematologist treats blood disorders and malignancies, including hemophilia, leukemia, lymphoma, and sickle-cell anemia.

    • hepatologist


      A hepatologist is a specialized doctor dealing with the study, prevention, diagnosis, and management of diseases that affect the liver, gallbladder, biliary tree, and pancreas.

      The term hepatology is derived from the Greek words “hepatikos” meaning liver and “logia“, meaning study.

    • Immunologist


      An immunologist is a medical professional who investigates and studies the physiological processes and functions of the body’s immune system.

      This knowledge is then applied in the diagnosis and treatment of a range of diseases that affect the said system.

    • Infectious Disease Specialist

      Infectious Disease Specialist

      Infectious disease specialist (medical doctor) who treats and diagnoses complex infections such as HIV or TB. The infectious disease specialist can perform their services in hospitals or may be out-patient based.

      Check out the top 15 deadliest bacterial diseases here.

    • intensivist


      An intensivist is a medical doctor specializing in training and treating critically ill patients in ICU (Intensive Care Unit). Intensivists can be internal medicine specialists (often pulmonologists), anesthesiologists, ER doctors, pediatricians, or surgeons.

      They are also referred as a critical care physician or critical care medicine specialist.

    • Internal Medicine Specialist

      Internal Medicine Specialist

      An Internal Medicine Specialist, also called an internist, specializes in managing and treating chronic adult illnesses through non-surgical procedures like pain relievers and anesthetics.

      Internists usually have sub-branches in diseases concerning particular organs or organ systems. They mostly work in hospitals to render their services.

    • Oral Surgeon

      Maxillofacial Surgeon / Oral Surgeon

      Maxillofacial Surgeons are dentists trained in performing surgery on the mouth and jaw. Maxillofacial surgeons specialize in treating and reconstructing areas of the face, head, or neck after an injury or surgery.

      The surgeries include Dentoalveolar surgery, bone-fused dental implants, cosmetic surgery of the head and neck, and corrective jaw surgery.

    • null

      Medical Examiner

      A medical examiner is a publicly appointed government doctor specializing in forensic pathology and autopsies. The medical examiner reviews deaths defined by regulations and local laws, which are essential for public health and welfare.

      These medical examiners review the autopsy reports to assess the exact cause of the death other than natural causes such as sudden and unexpected deaths.

    • geneticist

      Medical Geneticist

      A medical geneticist is trained in general medicine, genetic diagnosis, and treating patients with genetic disorders. They use molecular genetics, cytogenetics, and biochemical tests to treat patients with a comprehensive molecular and clinical approach.

      Check out the genetic testing pros and cons here.

    • neonatologist


      A neonatologist is a type of pediatrician specializing in the medical care of infants, particularly critically ill premature and full-time infants.

      Also, neonatologists work as general pediatricians providing care to ICU-borne newborn babies who require critical and urgent care. Some neonatologists, particularly those in educational settings, may monitor babies for months or sometimes years after hospital discharge to better evaluate the long-term effects of health problems early in life.

    • Nephrologist


      Nephrologists are trained medical doctors in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the kidney and urinary systems, such as inflammation of the kidneys, kidney biopsy, dialysis, chronic kidney disease, or cancer.

      For kids, pediatric nephrologists only treat children.

    • neurologist


      A neurologist is a doctor who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of the diseases that affect the nervous system (brain, spinal cord, and the neurons).

      Neurologists treat Demyelinating diseases (i.e., multiple sclerosis), Cerebrovascular diseases (i.e., stroke), Headache disorders, and infections of the brain.

    • null


      Although they also deal with diagnosing and treating diseases of the nervous system like what neurologists do, neurosurgeons are licensed to operate and perform surgeries on the patient’s brain.

      There are several sub-branches of neurosurgery, namely: Vascular neurosurgery, Stereotactic Neurosurgery, Skull base surgery, Spinal neurosurgery, Peripheral nerve surgery, Oncological neurosurgery, and Pediatric Neurosurgery.

      Suggested Reading: Best Neurosurgery Schools in the US.
    • Nuclear Medicine Specialist

      Nuclear Medicine Specialist

      Nuclear medicine specialists are trained medical doctors who administer radioactive medicines to diagnose and treat specific conditions, including bone scans, lung perfusion scans, & HIDA scans for gallbladder function.

      The common procedures in nuclear medicine based on the medical conditions include brain perfusion & glucose metabolic imaging, blood pool imaging, gastric emptying studies, hepatobiliary imaging, lymphoscintigraphy, parathyroid imaging, pulmonary perfusion & ventilation imaging, renal function imaging, thyroid imaging, thyroid whole body imaging, urinary tract imaging, and white blood cell studies.

    • gynecologist

      Obstetrician/Gynecologist (OB/GYN)

      Commonly abbreviated as OB/GYN, an obstetrician/gynecologist combines two doctors rolled into one. An obstetrician is a doctor trained in managing pregnancy, labor, and childbirth. On the other hand, a gynecologist is a doctor who specializes in the female reproductive system.

      Primatologist is a specialized doctor within OBGYN who treats patients with a high-risk pregnancies. Gynecologic oncologists are medical specialists who treat and diagnose women who have cancers in reproductive organs such as the ovaries and uterus.

    • Occupational Medicine Specialist

      Occupational Medicine Specialist

      An occupational medicine (OM) specialist is a medical doctor trained in providing continuous care for injured workers and helping them get back to work.

      They also support organizations to maintain a safe and healthy workplace (Occupational medicine).

      OM physicians work to ensure that the highest occupational health and safety standards are accomplished and kept in the workplace. Also, OM specialists are involved in other disciplines, such as preventing illness (such as flu by administering the flu shots), injury, and disability at the workplace.

    • oncologist


      Coming from the Greek word “onkos” which means “tumor” or “mass“, oncology is the branch of science that deals with cancers. Hence, oncologists are medical doctors who specialize in diagnosing, preventing, and treating cancer.

      There are different types of physicians within the Oncologist profession, namely: medical oncologist (chemotherapy or medications), a surgical oncologist (surgical procedure of a variety of tumors), radiation oncologist (megavoltage X-rays or radionuclides) and pediatric oncologist (physician specializing in childhood cancer).

    • ophthalmologist


      Unlike optometrists, who are also “eye doctors”, ophthalmologists can perform surgeries on the eyes. Moreover, they are considered medical and surgical specialists because they can perform operations on the eyes.

      Ophthalmologists diagnose various eye-related diseases such as Cataracts, Glaucoma, Macular degeneration, Diabetic retinopathy, dry eyes, Strabismus, Proptosis, Uveitis, Eye tumors, Refractive surgery, and more.

      Ophthalmology has subspecialties to specialize in particular eye diseases.

    • Orthopedic Surgeon

      Orthopedic Surgeon / Orthopedist

      Orthopedic surgeons (aka Orthopedist) are doctors specially trained to diagnose and treat. They operate on patients with diseases and injuries of the musculoskeletal system (which includes the muscles, broken bones, ligaments, tendons, and the nerves).

      Hand surgeons specialize in performing surgery for hand-related injuries and complications.

    • otolaryngologist

      Otolaryngologist (aka ENT Specialist)

      An otolaryngologist is a type of physician who specializes in managing and treating patients with various disorders of the Ear, Nose, and Throat. In addition to that, they also diagnose diseases that affect related structures like the head and neck.

      There are subspecialties within Otolaryngology that specialize in particular ENT regions, which include Head & Neck oncologic surgery, facial plastic, and reconstructive surgery, otology-neurotology, rhinology & sinus surgery, laryngology & voice-related disorders, pediatric otorhinolaryngology, and sleep medicine.

    • Osteopath


      An osteopath (aka osteopathic physician) is a medical doctor who specializes in osteopathic medicine. Osteopath strives to improve people’s overall health and wellness by treating the whole person rather than a condition or disease they may have.

      An osteopath can prescribe osteopathic manipulative medications and focus on stretching, massaging, and moving the musculoskeletal system to reduce pain and improve mobility, circulation of blood and lymphatic fluids.

    • palliative care specialist

      Palliative Care Specialist

      Palliative medicine is a sub-specialty of internal medicine that relieves suffering and improves the quality of life for patients with chronic, curable, or life-threatening diseases.

      Physicians are sometimes referred to as palliative care specialists by rendering palliative therapies without curative intent (i.e., when no cure can be expected – as often happens in late-stage cancers).

      Medicines and therapies are assumed to have a palliative effect if they relieve symptoms without healing the underlying disease or cause (e.g., treating chemotherapy-related nausea and providing painkillers).

    • Parasitology


      Parasitologists deal with parasites (microorganisms like bacteria, viruses, worms, and insects) that could either live temporarily or permanently, on or inside the human body.

      Parasitologists use techniques learned from cell biology, bioinformatics, biochemistry, molecular biology, immunology, genetics, evolution & even ecology.

      Also with parasitology, there are subdisciplines such as medical/human parasitologists who study parasites in humans; Veterinary parasitologists who study parasites on cattle and pets (animals).

    • Pathologist


      A pathologist is a trained medical doctor who performs autopsies in examining tissue (such as a mole) and blood samples to diagnose a disease and produce a pathological report.

      A pale pathologist is a doctor that studies ancient diseases. A forensic pathologist is a medical doctor who performs autopsies to find the cause of death when the crime is involved in the scene.

    • perinatologist


      A perinatologist is a specialized doctor concerned with the care of the fetus and complicated, high-risk pregnancies. Perinatology is sometimes referred to as maternal-fetal medicine.

      These types of doctors take special care of pregnant women who have chronic medical conditions such as heart diseases, blood pressure (hypertension), diabetes, or thrombophilia).

      They will help them with pregnancy-related complications such as preterm labor, twin/triplet pregnancies, pre-eclampsia, and so on).

    • null


      A periodontist is a board-certified doctor specializing in oral health care. Also, a periodontist can even diagnose and treat periodontal disease (gum disease) and is involved in the placement of dental implants.

      Periodontal diseases include P. gingivalis, T. forsythia, and T. denticola. Untreated may lead to alveolar bone loss and tooth loss.

      One must complete a dental degree before applying for the postgraduate training program in periodontology.

    • pediatrician


      A pediatrician is involved in managing the physical, emotional and, behavioral, & mental health of their young patients. Pediatricians focus on infants, children, teenagers, and young adults (up to 21 years old).

      The pediatricians who treat teenagers sometimes referred as Adolescent medicine specialist. A developmental pediatrician specializes in treating children with disabilities such as autism, cerebral palsy, down-syndrome, ADHD, and behavioral disorders.

    • null


      A physiatrist is a medical physician who specializes in helping patients to recover function after trauma such as a stroke or surgery.

      In treating these patients, physiatrists lead a group of physical, occupational, recreational, and speech therapists, nurses, psychologists (for counseling), and other social workers to help with faster recovery.

      Note that physical medicine and rehabilitation (PMR), also referred to as physiatry or rehabilitation medicine, targets to improve and restore functional ability and quality of life for patients with physical impairments affecting the critical organs namely brain, spinal cord, nerves, bones, joints, ligaments, muscles, and tendons.

      The other subspecialties of physiatrists include neuromuscular medicine, pain medications, pediatric rehabilitation medicine, spinal cord injury, sports medicine, brain injury (stroke), and palliative medicine.

    • Plastic Surgeon

      Plastic Surgeon

      Plastic surgeons are specialized medical doctors in surgery that improve a person’s outlook, such as surgery for a congenital disability (e.g., cleft palate), or surgery following an injury or the removal of cancer, such as breast implant surgery after breast removal (mastectomy).

      The sub-specialties of plastic surgery include Aesthetic surgery (cosmetics), burn surgery (fire wounds), Craniofacial surgery (congenital anomalies), hand surgery (congenital malformations), microsurgery (breast reconstruction), and Pediatric plastic surgery (congenital disability corrections).

    • psychiatrist


      Psychiatrists spend most of their time providing medical treatments to mental-disorder patients. These patients have problems with their thoughts, emotions, or behavior (conditions from depression to Schizophrenia to Delirium to ADHD). Psychiatrists provide treatments using a combination of both physical treatments (medicines) or psychological treatments (therapy) and social treatments.

      There are many different types of a psychiatrist:

      • Addiction Psychiatrists: They look after patients who have drug or behavioral addictions (such as gambling and alcoholism).
      • Child and Adolescent Psychiatrists: They care for younger people and their particular mental health concerns (such as ADHD, Autism, and Childhood Anxiety).
      • Geriatric Psychiatrists (or Psychogeriatricians): They look after the elderly (issues such as hoarding, dementia, grief, and loss).
      • Forensic Psychiatrists: They assess and care for prisoners and people accused of crimes and have a role in advising courts about how mental illness can affect criminal behavior.
      • Psychosomatic Medicine is a branch of psychiatry that deals with the relationships between physical and mental illness (such as in Delirium).
    • pulmonologist


      A pulmonologist specializes in pulmonary (lungs) and other respiratory tract illnesses and diseases.

      These types of doctors have a broad scope of specialization as they can treat almost everything from asthma to tuberculosis.

    • radiologist


      A radiologist is a medical professional trained to diagnose and treat patients by interpreting test results from medical imaging techniques.

      Such techniques include X-rays, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT) scan, and positron emission tomography (PET).

    • rheumatologist


      A rheumatologist is an MD who practices in the field of medical sub-specialty named rheumatology, which deals with the diagnosis and treatment of rheumatic diseases such as back pain, Bursitis/Tendinitis, Capsulitis, neck pain, Osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and also immune-mediated disorders (e.g., connective tissue diseases, soft-tissue rheumatism, and autoimmune diseases).

    • sleep doctor

      Sleep Doctor / Sleep Disorders Specialist

      A sleep doctor is a medical doctor specializing in the diagnosis & treatment of sleep-related disorders such as Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA).

      There are three types of sleep apnea, namely obstructive (OSA), central (CSA), and a mixture of the two called mixed sleep apnea. Risk factors for OSA result in overweight, allergies, a small airway, and enlarged tonsils.

      Sleep doctor also treats other sleep-related disorders, namely insomnia, Restless legs syndrome, Periodic leg movement disorder, Narcolepsy, Circadian rhythm disorder, and a few more.

    • Spinal Cord Specialist

      Spinal Cord Injury Specialist

      Spinal cord Injury (SCI) specialists are rehabilitation medical doctors who specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of people with spinal cord injuries.

      A spinal cord injury causes either temporary or permanent changes to its functions (loss of muscle function, sensation loss, pressure sores, infections, or breathing problems).

      In the bulk of cases, spinal cord damage is a direct result of physical trauma, including car accidents, gunshot wounds, falls, or sports-related injuries.

    • Sports Doctor

      Sports Medicine Specialist

      Sports medicine specialists are trained medical doctors in the treatment of people who have injuries to their bones, muscles, joints, tendons, or ligaments that result from physical activity (such as Sports).

      The injuries include cartilage tears, ligament ruptures of the knee, and shoulder, knee, or wrist problems.

    • null


      A surgeon is a physician trained in performing operations that involve treating injuries, removing infected body parts, and reconstructing missing or damaged tissues or organs.

      Medical doctors who treat and specialize in the surgery of colon/rectum are called colon and rectal surgeons.

    • Thoracic Surgeon

      Thoracic Surgeon

      Thoracic Surgeon is specialized in chest, heart, and lung surgeries. Thoracic surgeons may further specialize in one area, such as heart or lung surgery, or in a sub-specialty of that area, such as coronary artery bypass surgery.

      The thoracic surgeries include open-heart surgery, off-pump bypass surgery, robot-assisted heart surgery, Pediatric cardiovascular surgery (i.e., children’s heart surgery), lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS), and more.

    • null


      Urologists are doctors who specialize in diagnosing and treating disorders that affect the male and female urinary tract.

      In addition to that, urologists are also knowledgeable in treating patients with prostate cancer and other diseases that affect sexual health and fertility.

    • Vascular Surgeon

      Vascular Surgeon

      Vascular surgeons are medical physicians who specialize in the diagnosis, medical management, and surgical treatment of diseases with the blood vessels (vascular diseases).

      The scope of vascular surgery encapsulates surgery of veins (for May-Thurner syndrome and varicose veins), the aorta, carotid arteries, and lower extremities, including the iliac, femoral, and tibial arteries.

      In some parts of the world, vascular surgery also includes dialysis access surgery and transplant surgery.

    • null


      While all other doctors are responsible for treating humans, veterinarians are responsible for treating sick animals.

      A veterinary doctor (usually called a vet) practices veterinary medicine by treating illnesses, ailments, and injuries in animals (pets and cattle). Vets provide the diagnosis and treatment in the forms of prescribing medicines or performing surgeries and aftercare.

      Vets rely on the clinical symptoms of their diagnosis as animals cannot speak.

    Non-Medical Doctors

    Here is the list of alternative types of doctors (non-medical) or healthcare professionals who diagnose and treat diseases.

    • null


      An acupuncturist is a trained healthcare professional who practices the concepts of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) in the form of Acupuncture (using needles and herbal medicines).

      Acupuncturists are educated to diagnose various health problems such as pediatrics, gerontology, gynecology, various addictions (smoking, alcohol, and drug abuse), sports injury and pain management, mental health, oncology, dermatology, plus cosmetology.

    • Audiologist


      An audiologist specializes in the study of hearing, balance, and other auditory disorders. Primarily audiologists provide professional patient-centered care to minimize the adverse impacts of these diseases on the physical, mental, social, and psychological well-being of the person.

    • null

      Ayurvedic Practitioner

      Ayurveda is one of the world’s ancient healing systems (about 3000+ years old from India), which considers the balance of the whole body rather than focusing just on the symptoms like western medicines. The primary focus of Ayurveda is to promote well-being as a whole.

      An ayurvedic doctor or practitioner studies the principles of Ayurveda and can identify the doshas (life forces – Vata, Pitta, and Kapha) and prescribe herbal medicines accordingly.

    • chiropractor


      A chiropractor specializes in diagnosing and treating neuromuscular disorders. Unlike regular neurologists or neurosurgeons, chiropractors treat patients through manual manipulation and adjustment of the spine.

      Chiropractors focus on the conservative management of the neuromusculoskeletal system without the use of any medicines or surgery, however, with specific importance on the spine. Chiropractors typically treat low-back and neck pain issues by adjustments to the spinal cord.

    • diagnostician


      A Diagnostician is also referred to as a medical diagnostician who studies the medical symptoms and reports of patients to diagnose the disease.

      Diagnosticians generally use different methods with modifications such as logic, data analytics, and expertise to determine the cause and effect of diseases.

      Diagnosticians use the computer science network & technology and mathematics & logic in the process.

    • null

      Homeopathic Doctor

      Homeopathy is also one of the holistic healing systems similar to Ayurveda.
      Homeopathy considers the body, mind, spirit, and feelings of the patient to prescribe plant-based medicines (herbs) which stimulate the body’s healing abilities.

      The homeopathic doctor is very similar to a conventional doctor who listens, examines, analyzes the patient’s symptoms, and prepares unique medicines tailored to address the patient’s problems.

    • microbiologist


      Microbiologists are scientists or clinicians who study and examine the growth of microorganisms like bacteria, viruses, and fungi and their interactions with the human body and find out the pathogens that harm the body and determine the proper treatment for the disease.

      Microbiologists typically work on experimental research projects in a laboratory setting to improve scientific knowledge or to employ that understanding to improve outcomes in the medical industry.

    • Naturopathic Doctor

      Naturopathic Doctor

      A naturopathic doctor (ND) is very much similar to Ayurveda and Homeopathy, who focuses on the holistic healing system. ND helps to facilitate the body’s natural healing abilities to restore balance. Naturopathic physicians generally operate in private clinics, hospitals, and other community health centers. One who wishes to become an ND should complete a 4-year degree program from a recognized naturopathic medical school.

      NDs handle all sorts of medical conditions and can give both individual and family health care. Naturopathic medicine is used for many common problems, such as allergies, chronic pain, digestive issues, hormonal imbalances, respiratory conditions, and many more.

    • Nutritionist


      Unlike dietitians, who are qualified medical doctors to diagnose and treat eating disorders and design specific diets to treat certain medical conditions, nutritionists deal with general nutritional goals and education. Nutritionists often work in schools, hospitals, cafeterias, long-term care facilities, and athletic organizations.

    • pharmacist


      Although a pharmacist is not a medical doctor, however, a health care professional who practices pharmacy, a branch of health sciences specializing in safe and effective medication use.

      Within this, there are several different career options such as Retail Pharmacy, Clinical Pharmacy, Long-term care, Nuclear pharmacy, Home infusion & chemotherapy, pharmaceutical benefit management, and non-clinical pharmacy careers (Examples: Medical sales, Medical writing or Regulatory affairs).

    • physiotherapist


      A Physiotherapist helps people affected by injury, illness, or disability through massage, heat treatment, stretch exercises, education, and advice rather than drugs or surgery.

      Also, they help patients to manage pain and prevent diseases.

    • podiatrist

      Podiatrist / Chiropodist

      A podiatrist (aka Chiropodist) is a medical doctor devoted to the diagnosis and medical and surgical treatment of disorders of the foot, ankle, and lower extremities.

      The term podiatry came into existence only in the last century in the USA, and now it is widely used in UK and Australia.

    • null

      Registered Massage Therapist

      A Registered Massage Therapist (RMT) is a professional who has gone through additional training and education from recognized educational institutions in their jurisdiction and studied anatomy, physiology, pathology, physical assessment, neurology, treatments, and ethics to maintain the highest quality standards.

    Indeed, whether they work in their own clinics, public hospitals, or communities, doctors aim to help keep people to the best of their well-being. But the list above only goes to show how vast the scope of the field of medicine is.

    Suggested Reading: Top 10 Best MCAT Prep Books

    So if you are considering becoming a doctor, have you already decided which area you would like to study or specialize in?

    Cite This Page


    BioExplorer.net. (2023, March 22). Types of Doctors and Their Specializations. Bio Explorer. https://www.bioexplorer.net/types-of-doctors/.

    BioExplorer.net. "Types of Doctors and Their Specializations" Bio Explorer, 22 March 2023, https://www.bioexplorer.net/types-of-doctors/.

    BioExplorer.net. "Types of Doctors and Their Specializations" Bio Explorer, March 22 2023. https://www.bioexplorer.net/types-of-doctors/.

    • “Find a Doctor by Specialty” – US News. Accessed September 01, 2018. Link
    • “American Society of Andrology”. Accessed September 01, 2018. Link.
    • “GERIATRICS-FOR-SPECIALISTS INITIATIVE (GSI)”. Accessed September 01, 2018. Link.
    • “Neuropathology – An illustrated interactive course for medical students and residents”. Accessed September 01, 2018. Link.
    • “Occupational Medicine Specialists of Canada”. Accessed September 02, 2018. Link.
    • “Ophthalmology Subspecialists – American Academy of Ophthalmology”. Accessed September 02, 2018. Link.
    • “ABMS | American Board of Medical Specialties”. Accessed September 02, 2018. Link.
    • “History of Human Parasitology | Clinical Microbiology Reviews”. Accessed September 02, 2018. Link.
    • “Curriculum for Subspecialty Training in Maternal and Fetal Medicine”. Accessed September 02, 2018. Link.
    • “Gum Disease Information from the American Academy of Periodontology”. Accessed September 02, 2018. Link.
    • “Palliative Care for Clinicians | Consultations | Get Palliative Care”. Accessed September 02, 2018. Link.
    • “Microbiologists: Occupational Outlook Handbook: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics”. Accessed September 02, 2018. Link.
    • “A Guide to Fault Detection and Diagnosis”. Accessed September 02, 2018. Link.
    • “Cost-effectiveness of guideline-endorsed treatments for low back pain: a systematic review”. Accessed September 02, 2018. Link.
    • “What do physiatrists do?” – Hospital for special surgery (HSS). Accessed September 02, 2018. Link.
    • “Plastic Surgery – MSN Encarta”. Accessed September 02, 2018. Link.
    • “Rheum2Learn”. American College of Rheumatology. Accessed September 02, 2018. Link.
    • “Sleep Apnea | National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)”. Accessed September 02, 2018. Link.
    • “What Is Spinal Cord Injury / Disorder (SCI/D)”. Accessed September 02, 2018. Link.
    • “Veterinarians”. Accessed September 02, 2018. Link.
    • “The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery”. Accessed September 02, 2018. Link.
    • “What is a Vascular Surgeon? | Society for Vascular Surgery”. Accessed September 02, 2018. Link.
    • “The Different Types of Eye Care Professionals”. Accessed December 08, 2019. Link.
    • “Naturopathic Physicians: Natural Medine, Real Solution”. Accessed September 02, 2018. Link.


    1. Bio Explorer, Thanks a lot for this information; it helps me a lot, and I’m also suggesting others if you have any doubts about your medical career. Then you must take a look at these. It must help you for choosing the perfect option for you!

    2. Thank you for the great article and exhaustive list. I was surprised that Osteopaths weren’t on the list, especially since they are MD’s.

    3. Awesome stuff. Please keep writing more things like this. I really like the fact you went so in depth on this and really explored the topic as much as you did. I read a lot of blogs but usually, it’s pretty shallow content. Thanks for upping the game here!

    4. It’s great that this article shows all the different types of doctors that are in the medical field. I think that it is great that there are all kinds of different specialties to help the different kinds of issues within the body. Thank you for taking the time to list all of the doctor specialties. http://salamancamc.com.au/

    5. […] medical doctors miss underlying structural problems that can be the result of an at-work injury. They are quick to […]

    6. […] PG Seat Matrix Maharashtra, There are Govt. Medical pg seat matrix have been released of same branches which we have discussed above. Such Medical Seat Matrix are classified according to State Quota, […]

    7. […] This is the most obvious choice after you’ve obtained your pre-med degree; though it’s definitely not the only one. Medical school itself is hardly limiting. With your medical degree you can move into podiatry services or surgery; become a general practitioner or an allergist. There are at least 65 different types of doctors. […]

    8. Wow. What a comprehensive and insightful list of what seems like ALL the doctors on earth. Love it. Will be taking an in-depth look into each one of these! Thanks!


    Please enter your comment!
    Please enter your name here