Order Proteales / Sugar-bushes & Water Lotus Flowers


    Order Proteales

    Proteales is a part of peripheral eudicots classified together only recently. Members of Proteales are distributed in tropical and subtropical regions. Plants of Proteales are dicotsWhat is dicots?Angiosperm with two cotyledons. Cotyledon is seed leaf; the first leaf (or set of leaves) to appear during the early development of a seedling. with proteiod roots, uniseriate perianth, superior ovary, and possess 1 ovule per ovary (except Sabiaceae).

    The Proteales flowers are small or large and unisexual or bisexual. The American Lotus and large-nut sugar bush are examples of Proteales.

    Proteales Families

    Proteales Families

    Proteales is a member of the dicotyledonous flowering plants consisting of 4 families, 85 genera, and 1750 species[1]. Families under this order lack obvious links in their morphological characters; however, the sequences in their DNA[2] reveal their natural group connections.

    The following are the families under Order Proteales:

    • Nelumbonaceae (Water Lotus family).
    • Platanaceae (Sycamore family)
    • Proteaceae (Sugarbushes family)
    • Sabiaceae

    Proteales Distribution

    Proteales Distribution

    • The species of Proteaceae (68 genera and 1252 species)[3], the largest genera, can survive both in the rainforest to very dry (xeric) habitats of the tropical and subtropical regions. They are primarily found in Australia and South America. However, members also live in South Africa, New Caledonia, Eastern Malesia, and New Guinea.
    • The Sabiaceae family (3 genera and nearly 100 species)[4] is distributed through Asia and America’s tropical and subtropical regions. Two genera are found in tropical America, 7 species of Ophiocaryon are living in South America, and the Meliosma members are growing in Asia, North Mexico, and Central and South America.
    • The main distribution of Platanaceae (1 genus and 8-10 species)[5] is in temperate North America. A few species are found in southeastern Europe and southwestern Asia to India. Species are also found in Indochina and Guatemala.
    • Nelumbonaceae (1 genus and 2 species)[6] have 2 species. The N. lutea are distributed in North and South America, while N. nucifera are found in Asia to Northern Australia.

    Proteales Characteristics

    Proteales Characteristics

    Order Proteales achieves one of the most controversial classifications because the families do not possess many similarities in their morphological characters. However, the DNA studies[7] result in the placement of these families under a single order.

    • Plant type: Members of Proteales are shrubs, trees, lianas, or aquatic herbs.
    • Roots: The shrubs and trees of Proteaceae have proteiod roots.
    • Stem: The families of Platanaceae and Proteaceae have the same wood anatomy. The trees have exfoliating bark and encircling stipules.
    • Leaves: The leaves can be alternate, whorled, or opposite. Most of the species of Proteaecea have marginal teeth and stipules. The species of Proteales may be petiolate or sessile.
    • Flowers and Inflorescences: The flowers can be small or large, solitary or in pairs. Some species are in inflorescences of terminal racemose, raceme-like, compressed, or condensed in axillary or terminal panicles.
    • Sepals and petals: Most of the flowers have perianth in 1 whorl. The majority of the Proteales species have 4 sepals and 0 petals.
    • Stamens and carpels: Usually, the members of Proteales have 4 stamens joined to the perianth segment’s tips. Most species are unicarpellous.
    • Ovary and fruit: The ovary is superior. The fruit is a follicle, nut, aggregate of nuts, achene, multiple achenes, or drupe.
    • Seeds: The seeds are exalbuminous.

    Proteales Flowers and Reproduction

    Proteales Flowers and Reproduction

    Proteales Family Differences

    Proteales Family Differences

    Nelumbonaceae

    Platanaceae

    Proteaceae

    • The family comprises woody shrubs and trees with proteiod roots (clusters of bottlebrush-like rootlets with lateral roots).
    • The member’s leaves are alternate, whorled; others are opposite. Marginal teeth are often present. Stipules are present. Species can be petiolate or sessile. Leaf venation can be pinnate, sometimes parallel or palmate.
    • Flowers are bisexual or unisexual.
    • The perianth only has 1 whorl (uniseriate), with 4 sepals in the calyx and no corolla.
    • The ovary is superior with 1 locule.
    • Flowers have marginal placentation.
    • Member’s fruit is a follicle or nut. Some species have achene or drupe. The seed’s embryo does not contain albumen (exalbuminous).

    Sabiaceae

    Proteales Example Species

    Proteales Example Species

    Some species under Proteales are cultivated as ornamentals. Others are consumed as food and traditional medicine[10]. Below are the example species of the order Proteales.

    • American lotus[11] – The tuberous roots, leaves, and seeds were edible. The pods are often used in floral arrangements.
    • Indian lotus[12] – The petals, leaves, and rhizomeWhat is rhizome?An underground stem, with nodes and short to elongate internodes. are edible. The lotus plant fiber is used in making lotus silk.
    • London plane[13] – The tree is widely planted in streets because of its tolerance to pollution. The attractive brown color of the London tree wood is famous for making veneers.
    • Sycamore[14] – The species is used as a shade tree. Wood is used to make furniture, sidings, and musical instruments.
    • Kerr’s plane[15] – The Kerr’s plane bark has medicinal value.
    • Wagon tree[16]Protea nitida is commonly used as a garden species. The wagon tree wood is popular for ornamental furniture manufacture. The infusion from the bark is a treatment for diarrhea. The leaves of the Wagon tree are used for ink making.
    • Large-nut sugarbush[17] – This species is a garden plant. The flowerheads are attractive cut specimens.
    • Clanwilliam sugarbush
    • Dillenia-Leaved Meliosma[18]
    • Worm-Head tree[19]

    Cite This Page

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    BioExplorer.net. (2022, December 04). Order Proteales / Sugar-bushes & Water Lotus Flowers. Bio Explorer. https://www.bioexplorer.net/order-proteales/.
    BioExplorer.net. "Order Proteales / Sugar-bushes & Water Lotus Flowers" Bio Explorer, 04 December 2022, https://www.bioexplorer.net/order-proteales/.
    BioExplorer.net. "Order Proteales / Sugar-bushes & Water Lotus Flowers" Bio Explorer, December 04 2022. https://www.bioexplorer.net/order-proteales/.
    Key References
    • [1]“Proteales”. Accessed January 24, 2022. Link.
    • [2]“Proteales – AccessScience from McGraw-Hill Education”. Accessed January 24, 2022. Link.
    • [3]“Proteaceae – The Plant List”. Accessed January 24, 2022. Link.
    • [4]“Sabiaceae Blume | Plants of the World Online | Kew Science”. Accessed January 24, 2022. Link.
    • [5]“Platanus – an overview | ScienceDirect Topics”. Accessed January 24, 2022. Link.
    • [6]“Nelumbonaceae – an overview | ScienceDirect Topics”. Accessed January 24, 2022. Link.
    • [7]“The Tree: A Natural History of What Trees Are, How They Live, and Why They … – Colin Tudge – Google Mga aklat”. Accessed January 24, 2022. Link.
    • [8]“Breeding system and bumblebee drone pollination of an explosively pollen‐releasing plant, Meliosma tenuis (Sabiaceae) – Wong Sato – 2018 – Plant Biology – Wiley Online Library”. Accessed January 24, 2022. Link.
    • [9]“Preliminary observations of insect pollination in Protea punctata (Proteaceae) – ScienceDirect”. Accessed January 24, 2022. Link.
    • [10]“Antinociceptive study of extracts of Platanus orientalis leaves in mice”. Accessed January 24, 2022. Link.
    • [11]“Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center – The University of Texas at Austin”. Accessed January 24, 2022. Link.
    • [12]“Sacred lotus : Nelumbo nucifera – Nelumbonaceae (Lotus lily)”. Accessed January 24, 2022. Link.
    • [13]“London Plane (Platanus x hispanica) – British Trees – Woodland Trust”. Accessed January 24, 2022. Link.
    • [14]“Platanus occidentalis – Plant Finder”. Accessed January 24, 2022. Link.
    • [15]“Sell Barks Of Kerr’s Plane Tree For Pharmaceutical Production, Especially Betulinic Acid Manufacturer, Supplier & Exporter – ecplaza.net”. Accessed January 24, 2022. Link.
    • [16]“Protea nitida (Wagon Tree) – World of Flowering Plants”. Accessed January 24, 2022. Link.
    • [17]“Protea inopina | PlantZAfrica”. Accessed January 24, 2022. Link.
    • [18]“Meliosma dilleniifolia – Dillenia-Leaved Meliosma”. Accessed January 24, 2022. Link.
    • [19]“Meliosma pinnata var. oldhamii; Worm-head Tree”. Accessed January 24, 2022. Link.

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