Types of Old-World Monkeys


    Old-World Monkeys

    The term “Old World monkey” refers to the primates that make up the taxonomic family known as “Cercopithecidae“; they are mostly spread across Africa and Asia.

    Cercopithecidae consists of 23 genera and 160 species and includes various types of monkeys such as baboons, macaques, colobuses, langurs, and more.

    The family is split into two subfamilies: Cercopithecinae, which has 78 species, and Colobinae, which has 82 species.

    Characteristics of Old-World Monkeys

    Here are the main characteristics shared by Old World monkeys:

    • Monkey Diet

      Diet

      The majority of the species in the Cercopithecinae subfamily are omnivorous; although the specifics vary by species, they generally feed on foods like fruits, leaves, insects, small animals, eggs, and more[1]. On the other hand, all of the species of the Colobinae subfamily are herbivorous; their diets primarily consist of leaves and seeds [2].

      Explore more on: What Do Monkeys Eat?

    • Monkey Gestation

      Gestation

      Depending on the particular species, the gestation period of Old-World monkeys is usually around 5 to 7 months[3]. In most cases, these monkeys have one child per pregnancy; however, there is a small chance of double births occurring[3].

    • Monkey Tail

      Tail

      All Old-World monkeys have tails, though they are non-prehensile, meaning they cannot be used to hold or grasp objects[3]. It should also be noted that Old-World monkeys possess pads known as “ischial callosities” on both sides of their tail (on the rear)[4]. These pads of tissue can make sitting down on branches and other rough surfaces easier.

    • Monkey Body Size

      Body Size

      Old-World monkeys are generally medium-to-large-sized. The smallest species are the northern and southern talapoin monkeys, typically weighing about 2 to 3 pounds[5]. On the other hand, the largest species is the mandrill-males generally weigh around 55 pounds once they reach adulthood[6]. It is quite common for male species of Old-World monkeys to be much larger than their female counterparts.

    • Monkey Teeth

      Teeth

      All Old-World monkeys (as well as apes and humans) share the same dental formula of 2.1.2.3[7]. This essentially means that each quadrant of the mouth has 2 incisors (which are used to bite food directly) and 1 canine (which is used to tear food), as well as 2 premolars and 3 molars (both of which are used to chew food).

    • Monkey Social Behavior

      Social Behavior

      All Old-World monkey species are very social—most of them spend the majority of their lives with a group of their species[8]. Commonly, females stay with the group they were born in for their entire lives, while males often leave to join another group once they have grown up. For this reason, the social groups of Old-World monkeys are matrilineal; females typically make up the majority of these groups.

    • Monkey Eyes

      Eyes

      Old-World monkeys all have trichromatic vision, the type of vision humans have—which means that their retinas have three different types of light-sensitive cone cells: red, green, and blue[3]. The ratio of the amounts of each of the three colours controls the final color seen.

    • Monkey Limbs

      Limbs

      Old-World monkeys are quadrupedal, meaning they mainly walk on all four legs. It is also worth mentioning that, unlike their New-World counterparts, these monkeys have fully opposable thumbs, which helps them firmly grasp things in their hands[9].

    Types of Old-World Monkeys

    Agile Mangabey

    Species Name: Cercocebus agilis
    The Agile Mangabey is another Old-World monkey of the White-Eylid Mangabey group mainly found in swampy forests. Due to habitat loss, mangabeys are now listed as endangered, both male and female.

    Allen’s Swamp Monkey

    Species Name: Allenopithecus nigroviridis
    Allen's swamp monkeys are small, stocky monkeys with gray to brown fur and long tails. These highly social primates live in the swamp forests of central Africa, where they mostly spend their time in the trees. It was named after Joel Asaph Allen, an American zoologist.

    Angolan Colobus

    Species Name: Colobus angolensis
    The Angolan Colobus is a conspicuously-patterned monkey with a very long tail that helps it maintain its balance as it moves quickly through the trees. Although the species is named after Angola, it's rare in this country.

    Angolan Talapoin

    Species Name: Miopithecus talapoin
    Also known as the Southern talapoin, Angolan talapoin is a primate species in the Cercopithecidae family. Tail color varies from grayish-black to brownish-black above and is yellow or yellowish-gray below. The Angolan talapoin monkeys are among the smallest species of Old-World monkeys.

    Annamese Silvered Langur

    Species Name: Trachypithecus margarita
    The Annamese langur is another Old-World monkey in the subfamily Colobinae. Annamese langurs are covered in thick, gray fur. They have dark faces, and the space around the eyes is pale and forms a ring, often in the flesh. Trachypithecus margarita is a monotypic species as it has no subspecies.

    Arunachal Macaque

    Species Name: Macaca munzala
    The Arunachal macaque is a comparatively sizeable brown primate with a relatively short tail. Arunachal macaques were first classified into Cercopithecidae's taxonomy in 2005 by primatologists Madhusudan and Mishra.

    Ashy Red Colobus

    Species Name: Piliocolobus tephrosceles
    The Ashy-red Colobus or Ugandan red Colobus is an endangered species of red Colobus endemic to Eastern Africa. Like other colobus monkeys, Ashy Red has small thumbs that allow it to comfortably grip branches and swing nimbly through the canopy. In 2001, the ashy-red Colobus was recognized as a separate species.

    Assam Macaque

    Species Name: Macaca assamensis
    The Assam macaque, also known as Assamese macaque, is a macaque of the Old-World monkey family endemic to South and Southeast Asia. Assam is another state in India. Eating everything from fruits to 55 types of flowers, leaves, seeds, and bark, these macaque monkeys adapt their diet to suit their habitat.

    Bald Uakari

    Species Name: Cacajao calvus
    The bald uakari is an Amazon primate with special traits: it has a glossy red bald face, a short tail, and reddish fur. This monkey is highly specialized and is mainly found in palm habitats. The conspicuous crimson color is caused by blood flow under the skin, specifically a thinner epidermis with a higher concentration of capillaries on the face.

    Bale Monkey

    Species Name: Chlorocebus djamdjamensis
    The Bale monkey, also called the Bale Mountain Vervet, is an endangered, forest-dwelling arboreal primate restricted to a small range in the southern highlands of Ethiopia. The bale monkey depends primarily on a single species of bamboo (Arundinaria Alpina) and favors a bamboo forest habitat. These African primates feature small round heads, and their bodies are covered with a layer of dark-brown fur.

    Banded Langur

    Species Name: Presbytis femoralis
    The Banded langur, also known as the Raffles' banded langur or banded leaf monkey, is a primate species in the Cercopithecidae family. Like other Colobin monkeys, whose young typically have lighter-colored fur than adults, Banded langur infants have white or tan fur until it darkens around 6 months.

    Barbary Macaque

    Species Name: Macaca sylvanus
    The Barbary macaque, also called the Magot macaque, is a macaque endemic to the Atlas Mountains in Morocco and Algeria and a small introduced population in Gibraltar. Before the Ice Age, they inhabited the Mediterranean coasts and most of Europe, as far away as the British Isles and Germany.

    Bengal Sacred Langur

    Species Name: Semnopithecus entellus
    The Bengal sacred langur, also known as Hanuman's langur and the northern plains gray langur, is a primate species in the Cercopithecidae family. The Bengal sacred langurs are often referred to as "Hanuman's langurs", named after Lord Hanuman - the Hindu god.

    Black colobus

    The black colobus, also known as satanic black colobus, is a species of Old-World monkey in the Colobus genus. The black colobus is the oldest of the 5 recognized species in the genus Colobus and is said to have diverged 3 to 4 million years ago.

    Black Snub-nosed Monkey

    Species Name: Rhinopithecus bieti
    The black-and-white snub-nosed monkey, also called the Yunnan snub-nosed monkey, is a large black-and-white primate living only in Yunnan Province in southern China, where it is known to the local population as the Yunnan golden-haired monkey. The species gets the "snub-nosed" part of its name due to its lack of nasal bones.

    Black-crested mangabey

    Species Name: Lophocebus aterrimus
    Black-crested mangabeys, also known as black mangabeys, are endemic to central Africa, occupying the Democratic Republic of the Congo, south of the Congo River (formerly known as the Zaire River), and likely extinct in Angola. They are mainly found in primary and secondary tropical forests, gallery forests, and swamps. Locals nicknamed these primates "baboon mangabeys" due to their resemblance to the baboon species.

    Black-Crested Sumatran Langur

    Species Name: Presbytis melalophos
    The black-crested Sumatran langur (Presbytis melalophos), also called the Mitred leaf monkey, is a primate species in the Cercopithecidae family. The black-crested Sumatran langur, Raffles' banded langur, Sarawak surili, and black-and-white langur were formerly considered subspecies of Presbytis melalophos.

    Blue Monkey

    Species Name: Cercopithecus mitis
    The blue monkey is a species of Old-World monkey endemic to east and central Africa, ranging from the upper Congo Basin east to the East African Rift Valley and south to Zambia and northern Angola.

    Bonnet Macaque

    Species Name: Macaca radiata
    The Bonnet Macaque, also called Zati, is a species of macaque native to southern India. Bonnet macaques get their common name from a unique feature: a hood-like tuft of hair that extends from the top of their head, much like a tuft of dry grass. Their marble-round eyes look out into the world with a very expressive forehead.

    Campbell’s Mona Monkey

    Species Name: Cercopithecus campbelli
    Campbell's Mona monkey, also called the Campbell's monkey or Campbell's guenon is a primate species in the Cercopithecidae family. The species was named after Henry Dundas Campbell in 1838.

    Capped Langur

    Species Name: Trachypithecus pileatus
    The capped langur is a type of monkey in the Cercopithecidae family. These langurs can vary in appearance. This Asian primate gets its name from the thick hairs on the top of the head, typically gray or black.

    Chacma Baboon

    Species Name: Papio ursinus
    Like all other baboons, the Chacma baboon, the Cape baboon, belongs to the Old-World monkey family. Chacma baboons have a habit of flipping over rocks in search of food. So, it's pretty easy to spot where a group of Chacmas once foraged.

    Collared Mangabey

    Species Name: Cercocebus torquatus
    The collared mangabey, also called the white-collared mangabey or red-capped mangabey, is an Old-World monkey endemic to the Atlantic coast of central and west Africa. Its distinctive chestnut-red cap gives the species the name red-capped mangabey, and its white collar gives it the names white-collared and collared mangabey.

    Crab-Eating Macaque

    Species Name: Macaca fascicularis
    The crab-eating macaque also called the long-tailed macaque and known in laboratories as the cynomolgus monkey, is a primate monkey endemic to Southeast Asia. Crab-eating macaque macaques live in multi-male groups comprising around 30 members.

    Crested Black Macaque

    Species Name: Macaca nigra
    The Crested Black Macaque, also called the Sulawesi Crested Macaque or Celebes Crested Macaque is an Old World monkey native to the Tangkoko Game Reserve in the extreme northeast of the Indonesian island of Celebes (Sulawesi) and neighboring islets.

    Crested Mona Monkey

    Species Name: Cercopithecus pogonias
    The crested mona monkey, also called the golden-bellied monkey, golden-bellied guenon, or crowned guenon, is a species of African primate in the Cercopithecidae family in west-central Africa. Like many species of Cercopithecus, the crested mona monkey has large cheek pouches that it fills with seeds and fruit while foraging for food.

    De Brazza’s Monkey

    Species Name: Cercopithecus neglectus
    De Brazza's monkey is an Old-World primate native to central Africa's swamp and riverine forests. It is the largest species of the guenon family and one of the most widespread African arboreal primates.

    Diana Monkey

    Species Name: Cercopithecus diana
    The Diana monkey is an Old-World primate found in the high-canopy forests of Liberia, Sierra Leone, and the western Ivory Coast. Diana monkeys get their name from the white crescent-shaped headband that resembles the crescent moon on the forehead of the Roman goddess Diana, protector of woodlands and wildlife.

    Drill

    Species Name: Mandrillus leucophaeus
    The Drill is a primate in the Cercopithecidae family (Old-World monkeys), related to baboons and even more closely to mandrills. Like mandrills, drills are highly social animals that live in groups of around 20 individuals with multiple males and females, with one male dominating reproductive decisions.

    Dusky Langur

    Species Name: Trachypithecus obscurus
    Dusky langurs also known as spectacled langurs, spectacled leaf monkeys, and dusky leaf monkeys, are primarily found in the Malay Peninsula in Asia. White rings surrounding the deep, dark eyes give the species its alternative name, the spectacled monkey or spectacled langur, for a "bespectacled" look.

    East Javan Langur

    Species Name: Trachypithecus auratus
    The East Javan langur, also called the Javan lutung, Javan langur, or ebony langur is an Old-World primate in the subfamily Colobinae. As with all langurs, the East Javan langur is a social animal, living in groups of about 7 individuals, with 1 or 2 adult males in the group.

    Formosan Rock Macaque

    Species Name: Macaca cyclopis
    The Formosan rock macaque also called the Taiwanese macaque, or Formosan rock monkey, is a macaque native to the island of Taiwan. Aside from humans, Formosan rock macaques are the only native primates living in Taiwan.

    François’ Langur

    Species Name: Trachypithecus francoisi
    The François langur, also called the white side-burned black langur, François leaf monkey, or Tonkin leaf monkey is a species of Lutung and the type species of its species group. The François langur is among the least studied langur species.

    Gabon Talapoin

    Species Name: Miopithecus ogouensis
    The Gabon talapoin, also called the northern talapoin, is a small species of African primate endemic to riverine habitats in Gabon, Equatorial Guinea, Cameroon, the far western Democratic Republic of the Congo, and the western Republic of the Congo.

    Gee’s Golden Langur

    Species Name: Trachypithecus geei
    Gee's golden langur, also known simply as the golden langur, is an Old-World primate found in a small area of ​​western Assam, India, and in the nearby foothills of the Black Mountains of Bhutan. Gee's golden langur was officially discovered in 1953 by Edward Pritchard Gee, an amateur naturalist and tea planter in Assam, India.

    Gelada

    Species Name: Theropithecus gelada
    The gelada often called the gelada baboon, or the bleeding-heart monkey, is an Old-World monkey found only in the Ethiopian highlands. Geladas aren't territorial, and it is not unusual to find congregations of separate groups foraging together when conditions are favorable.

    Golden Snub-Nosed Monkey

    Species Name: Rhinopithecus roxellana
    The golden snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana) is an Old World monkey of the subfamily Colobinae. Golden snub-nosed monkeys are highly social animals that exhibit group behaviors known as fission and fusion.

    Golden-Bellied Mangabey

    Species Name: Cercocebus chrysogaster
    The golden-bellied mangabey (Cercocebus chrysogaster) is a gregarious Old-World monkey found in humid, swampy forests south of the Congo River. Golden-bellied mangabeys are a migratory and social species, moving in groups of 8 to 30 members.

    Gray-Cheeked Mangabey

    Species Name: Lophocebus albigena
    The gray-cheeked mangabey (Lophocebus albigena), also called the white-cheeked mangabey, is an Old World monkey found in the forests of central Africa. Gray-cheeked mangabeys belong to the same family (Cercopithecinae) and phylum (Papionini) as mandrills, macaques, and baboons.

    Green Monkey

    Species Name: Chlorocebus sabaeus
    The green monkey (Chlorocebus sabaeus), also called the sabaeus monkey, is an Old World monkey with golden-green fur, pale feet, and hands. Green monkeys' locomotion varies little, regardless of substrate or habitat. In nearly all circumstances, they move quadrupedally in the treetops or on the ground.

    Grivet Monkey

    Species Name: Chlorocebus aethiops
    The Grivet monkey (Chlorocebus aethiops) is an Old World monkey with long tufts of white fur on the sides of its face. Grivet monkeys are very social animals. They travel in small groups and are among the few species to have groups with multiple males.

    Guinea Baboon

    Species Name: Papio papio
    The Guinea baboon (Papio papio) is a baboon of the Old World monkey family. When walking, these baboons support their weight on the bottom of their toes in front and on the entire sole of their feet.

    Hamadryas Baboon

    Species Name: Papio hamadryas
    The Hamadryas baboon (Papio hamadryas) is a baboon species in the Old World monkey family. The Hamadryas baboon was a sacred animal to the ancient Egyptians. It appeared in various roles in ancient Egyptian religion, hence its alternative common name, "sacred baboon".

    Japanese Macaque

    Species Name: Macaca fuscata
    The Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata), also called the snow monkey, is a terrestrial Old World species of monkeys endemic to Japan. Japanese macaques from southern regions generally weigh less than those in northern regions of higher altitudes, where there is more snow during the winter months.

    Kashmir Gray Langur

    Species Name: Semnopithecus ajax
    The Kashmir gray langur is an Old-World monkey, one of the species of langurs. The Kashmiri gray langur derives its scientific name, Semnopithecus ajax, from a character in the ancient Greek poem - The Iliad - set during the Trojan War.

    King Colobus

    Species Name: Colobus polykomos
    The king colobus (Colobus polykomos), also called the western black and white colobus is a species of Old World monkey found in lowland and montane rainforests.

    Lesser Spotted-Nosed Monkey

    Species Name: Cercopithecus petaurista
    The lesser spotted-nosed monkey, lesser spotted monkey, or lesser white-nosed monkey (Cercopithecus petaurista) is a primate species in the Cercopithecidae family. The lesser spotted-nosed monkey is diurnal, arboreal, and cryptic.

    Lion-Tailed Macaque

    Species Name: Macaca silenus
    The lion-tailed macaque (Macaca silenus), also known as the wanderoo, is an Old World monkey native to the Western Ghats of South India. Lion-tailed macaques are diurnal and arboreal.

    Lowe’s Mona Monkey

    Species Name: Cercopithecus lowei
    Lowe's Mona monkey (Cercopithecus lowei) is an Old-World monkey in the Cercopithecidae family found from Ghana to the Ivory Coast. Lowe's Mona monkeys generally consist of one male and several females.

    Malbrouck

    Species Name: Chlorocebus cynosuros
    The Malbrouck (Chlorocebus cynosuros) is an Old-World primate from Africa that belongs to the Chlorocebus genus. The species is sometimes classified as a subspecies of the green monkey (Chlorocebus pygerythrus) or the common grivet (Chlorocebus aethiops).

    Mandrill

    Species Name: Mandrillus sphinx
    The mandrill (Mandrillus sphinx) is a primate of the Old-World monkey family (Cercopithecidae). It is among the two species in the Mandrillus genus and drill. Groups of mandrills can vary from a few individuals to 50 individuals.
    Gray Monkeys

    Nepal Gray Langur

    The Nepal gray langur (Semnopithecus schistaceus) is a gray langur native to the Himalayas of Nepal, extreme southwestern Tibet, northern Pakistan, northern India, Bhutan, and possibly Afghanistan. The Nepal gray langur is both terrestrial and arboreal.

    Nilgiri Langur

    Species Name: Semnopithecus johnii
    The Nilgiri langur (Semnopithecus johnii), also called the black-leaf monkey, John's langur, and Indian hooded leaf monkey is a langur (a species of Old-World monkey) found in the Nilgiri foothills of the Western Ghats in southern India.

    Red-Shanked Douc Langur

    Species Name: Pygathrix nemaeus
    The red-shanked douc langur is an Old-World monkey species that is one of the most colorful primates. Red-shanked douc langurs are genetically similar to gray-shanked douc langurs; however, they are considered a different species due to their different biological characteristics.

    Sooty Mangabey

    Species Name: Cercocebus atys
    The sooty mangabey, also called the white-collared or white-crowned mangabey is a predominantly terrestrial Old-World monkey. Sooty mangabeys remember the location of the fallen fruit and can tell whether or not a tree is bearing fruit.

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    • [4]“Old-World Monkeys”. Accessed September 03, 2022. Link.
    • [5]“Fossil of Smallest Old World Monkey Species Discovered in Kenya | Arkansas Research”. Accessed September 03, 2022. Link.
    • [6]“Mandrill | San Diego Zoo Animals & Plants”. Accessed September 03, 2022. https://animals.sandiegozoo.org/animals/mandrill.
    • [7]“The Primates: Monkeys”. Accessed September 03, 2022. https://www2.palomar.edu/anthro/primate/prim_4.htm.
    • [8]“Old World Monkeys: Cercopithecids – The Psychological Well-Being of Nonhuman Primates – NCBI Bookshelf”. Accessed September 03, 2022. Link.
    • [9]“Monkeys – World, Species, Tree, and Primates – JRank Articles”. Accessed September 03, 2022. Link.


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