Types of Old-World Monkeys


    Old-World Monkeys

    The term “Old World monkey” refers to the primates that make up the taxonomic family known as “Cercopithecidae“; they are mostly spread across Africa and Asia.

    Cercopithecidae consists of 23 genera and 160 species and includes various types of monkeys such as baboons, macaques, colobuses, langurs, and more.

    The family is split into two subfamilies: Cercopithecinae, which has 78 species, and Colobinae, which has 82 species.

    Characteristics of Old-World Monkeys

    Here are the main characteristics shared by Old World monkeys:

    • Monkey Diet

      Diet

      The majority of the species in the Cercopithecinae subfamily are omnivorous; although the specifics vary by species, they generally feed on foods like fruits, leaves, insects, small animals, eggs, and more[1]. On the other hand, all of the species of the Colobinae subfamily are herbivorous; their diets primarily consist of leaves and seeds [2].

      Explore more on: What Do Monkeys Eat?

    • Monkey Gestation

      Gestation

      Depending on the particular species, the gestation period of Old-World monkeys is usually around 5 to 7 months[3]. In most cases, these monkeys have one child per pregnancy; however, there is a small chance of double births occurring[3].

    • Monkey Tail

      Tail

      All Old-World monkeys have tails, though they are non-prehensile, meaning they cannot be used to hold or grasp objects[3]. It should also be noted that Old-World monkeys possess pads known as “ischial callosities” on both sides of their tail (on the rear)[4]. These pads of tissue can make sitting down on branches and other rough surfaces easier.

    • Monkey Body Size

      Body Size

      Old-World monkeys are generally medium-to-large-sized. The smallest species are the northern and southern talapoin monkeys, typically weighing about 2 to 3 pounds[5]. On the other hand, the largest species is the mandrill-males generally weigh around 55 pounds once they reach adulthood[6]. It is quite common for male species of Old-World monkeys to be much larger than their female counterparts.

    • Monkey Teeth

      Teeth

      All Old-World monkeys (as well as apes and humans) share the same dental formula of 2.1.2.3[7]. This essentially means that each quadrant of the mouth has 2 incisors (which are used to bite food directly) and 1 canine (which is used to tear food), as well as 2 premolars and 3 molars (both of which are used to chew food).

    • Monkey Social Behavior

      Social Behavior

      All Old-World monkey species are very social—most of them spend the majority of their lives with a group of their species[8]. Commonly, females stay with the group they were born in for their entire lives, while males often leave to join another group once they have grown up. For this reason, the social groups of Old-World monkeys are matrilineal; females typically make up the majority of these groups.

    • Monkey Eyes

      Eyes

      Old-World monkeys all have trichromatic vision, the type of vision humans have—which means that their retinas have three different types of light-sensitive cone cells: red, green, and blue[3]. The ratio of the amounts of each of the three colours controls the final color seen.

    • Monkey Limbs

      Limbs

      Old-World monkeys are quadrupedal, meaning they mainly walk on all four legs. It is also worth mentioning that, unlike their New-World counterparts, these monkeys have fully opposable thumbs, which helps them firmly grasp things in their hands[9].

    Types of Old-World Monkeys

    Agile Mangabey

    Species Name: Cercocebus agilis
    The Agile Mangabey is another Old-World monkey of the White-Eylid Mangabey group mainly found in swampy forests. Due to habitat loss, mangabeys are now listed as endangered, both male and female.

    Allen’s Swamp Monkey

    Species Name: Allenopithecus nigroviridis
    Allen's swamp monkeys are small, stocky monkeys with gray to brown fur and long tails. These highly social primates live in the swamp forests of central Africa, where they mostly spend their time in the trees. It was named after Joel Asaph Allen, an American zoologist.

    Angolan Colobus

    Species Name: Colobus angolensis
    The Angolan Colobus is a conspicuously-patterned monkey with a very long tail that helps it maintain its balance as it moves quickly through the trees. Although the species is named after Angola, it's rare in this country.

    Angolan Talapoin

    Species Name: Miopithecus talapoin
    Also known as the Southern talapoin, Angolan talapoin is a primate species in the Cercopithecidae family. Tail color varies from grayish-black to brownish-black above and is yellow or yellowish-gray below. The Angolan talapoin monkeys are among the smallest species of Old-World monkeys.

    Annamese Silvered Langur

    Species Name: Trachypithecus margarita
    The Annamese langur is another Old-World monkey in the subfamily Colobinae. Annamese langurs are covered in thick, gray fur. They have dark faces, and the space around the eyes is pale and forms a ring, often in the flesh. Trachypithecus margarita is a monotypic species as it has no subspecies.

    Arunachal Macaque

    Species Name: Macaca munzala
    The Arunachal macaque is a comparatively sizeable brown primate with a relatively short tail. Arunachal macaques were first classified into Cercopithecidae's taxonomy in 2005 by primatologists Madhusudan and Mishra.

    Ashy Red Colobus

    Species Name: Piliocolobus tephrosceles
    The Ashy-red Colobus or Ugandan red Colobus is an endangered species of red Colobus endemic to Eastern Africa. Like other colobus monkeys, Ashy Red has small thumbs that allow it to comfortably grip branches and swing nimbly through the canopy. In 2001, the ashy-red Colobus was recognized as a separate species.

    Assam Macaque

    Species Name: Macaca assamensis
    The Assam macaque, also known as Assamese macaque, is a macaque of the Old-World monkey family endemic to South and Southeast Asia. Assam is another state in India. Eating everything from fruits to 55 types of flowers, leaves, seeds, and bark, these macaque monkeys adapt their diet to suit their habitat.

    Bale Monkey

    Species Name: Chlorocebus djamdjamensis
    The Bale monkey, also called the Bale Mountain Vervet, is an endangered, forest-dwelling arboreal primate restricted to a small range in the southern highlands of Ethiopia. The bale monkey depends primarily on a single species of bamboo (Arundinaria Alpina) and favors a bamboo forest habitat. These African primates feature small round heads, and their bodies are covered with a layer of dark-brown fur.

    Banded Langur

    Species Name: Presbytis femoralis
    The Banded langur, also known as the Raffles' banded langur or banded leaf monkey, is a primate species in the Cercopithecidae family. Like other Colobin monkeys, whose young typically have lighter-colored fur than adults, Banded langur infants have white or tan fur until it darkens around 6 months.

    Barbary Macaque

    Species Name: Macaca sylvanus
    The Barbary macaque, also called the Magot macaque, is a macaque endemic to the Atlas Mountains in Morocco and Algeria and a small introduced population in Gibraltar. Before the Ice Age, they inhabited the Mediterranean coasts and most of Europe, as far away as the British Isles and Germany.

    Bengal Sacred Langur

    Species Name: Semnopithecus entellus
    The Bengal sacred langur, also known as Hanuman's langur and the northern plains gray langur, is a primate species in the Cercopithecidae family. The Bengal sacred langurs are often referred to as "Hanuman's langurs", named after Lord Hanuman - the Hindu god.

    Black and White Langur

    Species Name: Presbytis bicolor
    The black-and-white langur is a primate species in the Cercopithecidae family. It was formerly thought to be a subspecies of the Presbytis melalophos (black-crested Sumatran langur). Still, the genetic analysis indicated they were separate species.

    Black colobus

    The black colobus, also known as satanic black colobus, is a species of Old-World monkey in the Colobus genus. The black colobus is the oldest of the 5 recognized species in the genus Colobus and is said to have diverged 3 to 4 million years ago.

    Black Snub-nosed Monkey

    Species Name: Rhinopithecus bieti
    The black-and-white snub-nosed monkey, also called the Yunnan snub-nosed monkey, is a large black-and-white primate living only in Yunnan Province in southern China, where it is known to the local population as the Yunnan golden-haired monkey. The species gets the "snub-nosed" part of its name due to its lack of nasal bones.

    Black Sumatran Langur

    Species Name: Presbytis sumatrana
    The black Sumatran langur is a species of monkey in the Cercopithecidae family that is endemic to Indonesia's Sumatra Island. Presbytis sumatrana was once considered a subspecies of Sumatran Surili. Still, genetic analysis has shown it to be a distinct species.

    Black-crested mangabey

    Species Name: Lophocebus aterrimus
    Black-crested mangabeys, also known as black mangabeys, are endemic to central Africa, occupying the Democratic Republic of the Congo, south of the Congo River (formerly known as the Zaire River), and likely extinct in Angola. They are mainly found in primary and secondary tropical forests, gallery forests, and swamps. Locals nicknamed these primates "baboon mangabeys" due to their resemblance to the baboon species.

    Black-Crested Sumatran Langur

    Species Name: Presbytis melalophos
    The black-crested Sumatran langur (Presbytis melalophos), also called the Mitred leaf monkey, is a primate species in the Cercopithecidae family. The black-crested Sumatran langur, Raffles' banded langur, Sarawak surili, and black-and-white langur were formerly considered subspecies of Presbytis melalophos.

    Black-footed Gray Langur

    Species Name: Semnopithecus hypoleucos
    The black-footed gray langur is an Old-World monkey, one of the langur species. Like other gray langurs, this species is a leaf-eating monkey in southern India. The black-footed gray langur is distributed throughout southwestern India (Kerala, Karnataka, and Goa) but is concentrated in the Western Ghats.

    Blue Monkey

    Species Name: Cercopithecus mitis
    The blue monkey is a species of Old-World monkey endemic to east and central Africa, ranging from the upper Congo Basin east to the East African Rift Valley and south to Zambia and northern Angola.

    Bonnet Macaque

    Species Name: Macaca radiata
    The Bonnet Macaque, also called Zati, is a species of macaque native to southern India. Bonnet macaques get their common name from a unique feature: a hood-like tuft of hair that extends from the top of their head, much like a tuft of dry grass. Their marble-round eyes look out into the world with a very expressive forehead.

    Bonobo

    Species Name: Pan paniscus
    The bonobo (Pan paniscus) is a great ape in danger of extinction. It is one of two species that make up the Pan genus, the other being Pan troglodytes - the common chimpanzee. Bonobos are both arboreal and terrestrial. Most floor movements are characterized by knuckle quadrupedal walking.

    Booted Macaque

    Species Name: Macaca ochreata
    The booted macaque is a macaque native to Indonesia's Sulawesi Island. This Old-World monkey is diurnal, spending most of the day in trees. A booted macaque monkey's body mass is determined by its sex, with males significantly larger than females.

    Bouvier’s Red Colobus

    Species Name: Piliocolobus bouvieri
    Bouvier's Red Colobus was rediscovered in 2015 in the Republic of Congo after four decades without confirmed sightings. These African primates live in the swampy forests surrounding the Congo River, between the mouths of the Oubangui and Alima rivers.

    Campbell’s Mona Monkey

    Species Name: Cercopithecus campbelli
    Campbell's Mona monkey, also called the Campbell's monkey or Campbell's guenon is a primate species in the Cercopithecidae family. The species was named after Henry Dundas Campbell in 1838.

    Capped Langur

    Species Name: Trachypithecus pileatus
    The capped langur is a type of monkey in the Cercopithecidae family. These langurs can vary in appearance. This Asian primate gets its name from the thick hairs on the top of the head, typically gray or black.

    Cat Ba Langur

    Species Name: Trachypithecus poliocephalus
    The white-headed langur, also called the Cat Ba langur, is an endangered species of langur native to Guangxi, China. Cat Ba langurs are comfortable in trees or ground but prefer steep cliffs where humans can't set foot.

    Chacma Baboon

    Species Name: Papio ursinus
    Like all other baboons, the Chacma baboon, the Cape baboon, belongs to the Old-World monkey family. Chacma baboons have a habit of flipping over rocks in search of food. So, it's pretty easy to spot where a group of Chacmas once foraged.

    Collared Mangabey

    Species Name: Cercocebus torquatus
    The collared mangabey, also called the white-collared mangabey or red-capped mangabey, is an Old-World monkey endemic to the Atlantic coast of central and west Africa. Its distinctive chestnut-red cap gives the species the name red-capped mangabey, and its white collar gives it the names white-collared and collared mangabey.

    Crab-Eating Macaque

    Species Name: Macaca fascicularis
    The crab-eating macaque also called the long-tailed macaque and known in laboratories as the cynomolgus monkey, is a primate monkey endemic to Southeast Asia. Crab-eating macaque macaques live in multi-male groups comprising around 30 members.

    Crested Black Macaque

    Species Name: Macaca nigra
    The Crested Black Macaque, also called the Sulawesi Crested Macaque or Celebes Crested Macaque is an Old World monkey native to the Tangkoko Game Reserve in the extreme northeast of the Indonesian island of Celebes (Sulawesi) and neighboring islets.

    Crested Mona Monkey

    Species Name: Cercopithecus pogonias
    The crested mona monkey, also called the golden-bellied monkey, golden-bellied guenon, or crowned guenon, is a species of African primate in the Cercopithecidae family in west-central Africa. Like many species of Cercopithecus, the crested mona monkey has large cheek pouches that it fills with seeds and fruit while foraging for food.

    Cross Marked Langur

    Species Name: Presbytis chrysomelas
    The Sarawak surili, also known as Cross-marked Langur, is a monkey species in the Cercopithecidae family. The Sarawak surili was once considered widespread but has declined significantly due to habitat and loss persecution.

    De Brazza’s Monkey

    Species Name: Cercopithecus neglectus
    De Brazza's monkey is an Old-World primate native to central Africa's swamp and riverine forests. It is the largest species of the guenon family and one of the most widespread African arboreal primates.

    Delacour’s Langur

    Species Name: Trachypithecus delacouri
    The Delacour's langur, also known as Delacour's Lutung, is an endangered Lutung native to northern Vietnam. The species is named after Jean Théodore Delacour, a French-American ornithologist.

    Diana Monkey

    Species Name: Cercopithecus diana
    The Diana monkey is an Old-World primate found in the high-canopy forests of Liberia, Sierra Leone, and the western Ivory Coast. Diana monkeys get their name from the white crescent-shaped headband that resembles the crescent moon on the forehead of the Roman goddess Diana, protector of woodlands and wildlife.

    Drill

    Species Name: Mandrillus leucophaeus
    The Drill is a primate in the Cercopithecidae family (Old-World monkeys), related to baboons and even more closely to mandrills. Like mandrills, drills are highly social animals that live in groups of around 20 individuals with multiple males and females, with one male dominating reproductive decisions.

    Dusky Langur

    Species Name: Trachypithecus obscurus
    Dusky langurs also known as spectacled langurs, spectacled leaf monkeys, and dusky leaf monkeys, are primarily found in the Malay Peninsula in Asia. White rings surrounding the deep, dark eyes give the species its alternative name, the spectacled monkey or spectacled langur, for a "bespectacled" look.

    East Javan Langur

    Species Name: Trachypithecus auratus
    The East Javan langur, also called the Javan lutung, Javan langur, or ebony langur is an Old-World primate in the subfamily Colobinae. As with all langurs, the East Javan langur is a social animal, living in groups of about 7 individuals, with 1 or 2 adult males in the group.

    East Sumatran Banded Langur

    Species Name: Presbytis percura
    The East Sumatran banded langur also called the East Sumatran banded surili are primarily found in the fragmented landscape of pulp and rubber plantations. These surilis are shy and alert creatures, rarely leaving the comfort of their canopies.

    Foa’s Red Colobus

    Species Name: Piliocolobus foai
    Foa's Red Colobus or Central African red colobus is endemic to the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Generally, these African primates are found in large groups of 20 to 90 individuals.

    Formosan Rock Macaque

    Species Name: Macaca cyclopis
    The Formosan rock macaque also called the Taiwanese macaque, or Formosan rock monkey, is a macaque native to the island of Taiwan. Aside from humans, Formosan rock macaques are the only native primates living in Taiwan.

    François’ Langur

    Species Name: Trachypithecus francoisi
    The François langur, also called the white side-burned black langur, François leaf monkey, or Tonkin leaf monkey is a species of Lutung and the type species of its species group. The François langur is among the least studied langur species.

    Gabon Talapoin

    Species Name: Miopithecus ogouensis
    The Gabon talapoin, also called the northern talapoin, is a small species of African primate endemic to riverine habitats in Gabon, Equatorial Guinea, Cameroon, the far western Democratic Republic of the Congo, and the western Republic of the Congo.

    Gee’s Golden Langur

    Species Name: Trachypithecus geei
    Gee's golden langur, also known simply as the golden langur, is an Old-World primate found in a small area of ​​western Assam, India, and in the nearby foothills of the Black Mountains of Bhutan. Gee's golden langur was officially discovered in 1953 by Edward Pritchard Gee, an amateur naturalist and tea planter in Assam, India.

    Gelada

    Species Name: Theropithecus gelada
    The gelada often called the gelada baboon, or the bleeding-heart monkey, is an Old-World monkey found only in the Ethiopian highlands. Geladas aren't territorial, and it is not unusual to find congregations of separate groups foraging together when conditions are favorable.

    Germain’s Langur

    Species Name: Trachypithecus germaini
    Germain's Langur is a lutung species endemic to Thailand, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, and Burma. Germain's langur is a terrestrial tree-dwelling species occasionally found in lowlands.

    Golden Snub-Nosed Monkey

    Species Name: Rhinopithecus roxellana
    The golden snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana) is an Old World monkey of the subfamily Colobinae. Golden snub-nosed monkeys are highly social animals that exhibit group behaviors known as fission and fusion.

    Golden-Bellied Mangabey

    Species Name: Cercocebus chrysogaster
    The golden-bellied mangabey (Cercocebus chrysogaster) is a gregarious Old-World monkey found in humid, swampy forests south of the Congo River. Golden-bellied mangabeys are a migratory and social species, moving in groups of 8 to 30 members.

    Gorontalo Macaque

    Species Name: Macaca nigrescens
    The Gorontalo macaque (Macaca nigrescens), also called the Dumoga-bone macaque, is a species of the primate of the Cercopithecidae family. It is native to the Sulawesi Island of Indonesia.

    Gray-Cheeked Mangabey

    Species Name: Lophocebus albigena
    The gray-cheeked mangabey (Lophocebus albigena), also called the white-cheeked mangabey, is an Old World monkey found in the forests of central Africa. Gray-cheeked mangabeys belong to the same family (Cercopithecinae) and phylum (Papionini) as mandrills, macaques, and baboons.

    Green Monkey

    Species Name: Chlorocebus sabaeus
    The green monkey (Chlorocebus sabaeus), also called the sabaeus monkey, is an Old World monkey with golden-green fur, pale feet, and hands. Green monkeys' locomotion varies little, regardless of substrate or habitat. In nearly all circumstances, they move quadrupedally in the treetops or on the ground.

    Grivet Monkey

    Species Name: Chlorocebus aethiops
    The Grivet monkey (Chlorocebus aethiops) is an Old World monkey with long tufts of white fur on the sides of its face. Grivet monkeys are very social animals. They travel in small groups and are among the few species to have groups with multiple males.

    Guinea Baboon

    Species Name: Papio papio
    The Guinea baboon (Papio papio) is a baboon of the Old World monkey family. When walking, these baboons support their weight on the bottom of their toes in front and on the entire sole of their feet.

    Hamadryas Baboon

    Species Name: Papio hamadryas
    The Hamadryas baboon (Papio hamadryas) is a baboon species in the Old World monkey family. The Hamadryas baboon was a sacred animal to the ancient Egyptians. It appeared in various roles in ancient Egyptian religion, hence its alternative common name, "sacred baboon".

    Hamlyn’s Monkey

    Species Name: Cercopithecus hamlyni
    The Hamlyn's monkey (Cercopithecus hamlyni), also called the owl-faced monkey, is an Old World monkey inhabiting the Congo's bamboo and primary rain forests. Hamlyn's monkeys have unique feet and hands in elongated phalanges.

    Hatinh Langur

    Species Name: Trachypithecus hatinhensis
    The Hatinh langur (Trachypithecus hatinhensis) is a critically endangered Old World monkey found in the limestone forests of Vietnam, particularly in Quảng Bình province. Contrary to their common name, the Hatinh langur is not known from the province of Hà Tĩnh.

    Heck’s Macaque

    Species Name: Macaca hecki
    The Heck's Macaque (Macaca hecki) is a macaque native to Sulawesi, Indonesia. This Old-World monkey is diurnal. Due to their frugivorous diet, Heck's macaques will likely act as seed dispersers throughout their habitat.

    Highland Mangabey

    Species Name: Rungwecebus kipunji
    The kipunji (Rungwecebus kipunji), also called the highland mangabey, is an Old World monkey inhabiting the upland forests of Tanzania. Kipunji is active during the day and mostly confine their activity to trees and rarely reach the ground.

    Indochinese Black Langur

    Species Name: Trachypithecus ebenus
    The Indochinese black langur (Trachypithecus selbstus) is a little-known Lutung endemic to Laos and neighboring Vietnam. Because they live in dense forests and rarely venture outside, observing them in the wild can be difficult.

    Indochinese Grey Langur

    Species Name: Trachypithecus crepusculus
    The Indochinese gray langur (Trachypithecus crepusculus) is a species of Lutung native to Southeast and East Asia. This species was once thought to be conspecific with the Phayre's leaf monkey (Trachypithecus phayrei).

    Japanese Macaque

    Species Name: Macaca fuscata
    The Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata), also called the snow monkey, is a terrestrial Old World species of monkeys endemic to Japan. Japanese macaques from southern regions generally weigh less than those in northern regions of higher altitudes, where there is more snow during the winter months.

    Kashmir Gray Langur

    Species Name: Semnopithecus ajax
    The Kashmir gray langur is an Old-World monkey, one of the species of langurs. The Kashmiri gray langur derives its scientific name, Semnopithecus ajax, from a character in the ancient Greek poem - The Iliad - set during the Trojan War.

    Kinda Baboon

    Species Name: Papio kindae
    The Kinda baboon (Papio kindae) is a species of baboon found in the Miombo forests of Angola, Zambia, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and possibly western Tanzania. The species is named after the town in the southern Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    King Colobus

    Species Name: Colobus polykomos
    The king colobus (Colobus polykomos), also called the western black and white colobus is a species of Old World monkey found in lowland and montane rainforests.

    L’hoest Monkey

    Species Name: Allochrocebus lhoesti
    The L'Hoest monkey (Allocrocebus lhoesti), or mountain monkey, is a vervet monkey found in the upper eastern Congo Basin. L'Hoest monkeys live in relatively small groups, are dominated by females, and have only one male.

    Lang’s Red Colobus

    Species Name: Piliocolobus langi
    Lang's red colobus (Piliocolobus langi) is another species of red colobus monkey. Historically, it was treated as a subspecies of the Central African red colobus (Piliocolobus foai). Still, more recent taxonomies generally treat it as a distinct species.

    Laotian Langur

    Species Name: Trachypithecus laotum
    The Laotian langur (Trachypithecus laotum), also known as white-browed black langur, is another primate species that nest in small limestone caves and holes that shelter from predators, rain, and cold.

    Lesser Spotted-Nosed Monkey

    Species Name: Cercopithecus petaurista
    The lesser spotted-nosed monkey, lesser spotted monkey, or lesser white-nosed monkey (Cercopithecus petaurista) is a primate species in the Cercopithecidae family. The lesser spotted-nosed monkey is diurnal, arboreal, and cryptic.

    Lion-Tailed Macaque

    Species Name: Macaca silenus
    The lion-tailed macaque (Macaca silenus), also known as the wanderoo, is an Old World monkey native to the Western Ghats of South India. Lion-tailed macaques are diurnal and arboreal.

    Lomami Red Colobus

    Species Name: Piliocolobus parmentieri
    The Lomami red colobus (Piliocolobus parmentieri) is native to central Africa. The Lomani red colobus monkey has a restricted range in the lowland rainforest between the Lomani River and the Lualaba River in the central Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Lowe’s Mona Monkey

    Species Name: Cercopithecus lowei
    Lowe's Mona monkey (Cercopithecus lowei) is an Old-World monkey in the Cercopithecidae family found from Ghana to the Ivory Coast. Lowe's Mona monkeys generally consist of one male and several females.

    Malbrouck

    Species Name: Chlorocebus cynosuros
    The Malbrouck (Chlorocebus cynosuros) is an Old-World primate from Africa that belongs to the Chlorocebus genus. The species is sometimes classified as a subspecies of the green monkey (Chlorocebus pygerythrus) or the common grivet (Chlorocebus aethiops).

    Mandrill

    Species Name: Mandrillus sphinx
    The mandrill (Mandrillus sphinx) is a primate of the Old-World monkey family (Cercopithecidae). It is among the two species in the Mandrillus genus and drill. Groups of mandrills can vary from a few individuals to 50 individuals.

    Mantled Guereza

    Species Name: Colobus guereza
    The mantled guereza (Colobus guereza), also known as the guereza, Abyssinian black-and-white colobus, or eastern black-and-white colobus, is a black-and-white colobus, a species of Old World monkey. The mantled guerezas are typically diurnal.

    Maroon Langur

    Species Name: Presbytis rubicunda
    Endemic to the jungles of Borneo in Indonesia and Malaysia, red leaf monkeys get their name from their shaggy reddish-maroon fur. They are also known as maroon-leaf monkeys and maroon langurs.

    Mentawai Langur

    Species Name: Presbytis potenziani
    Mentawai Langur is also called the Long-Tailed Langur, and it is native to the Mentawai Islands in Indonesia. The pelage of Mentawai langur is medium length, longer on the back of the shoulders and anterior of the flanks and shorter on the face, neck, abdomen, and under the thighs.

    Miller’s Langur

    Species Name: Presbytis canicrus
    Miller's Langur (Presbytis canicrus), also called the Kutai Gray Langur, is the rarest of the four Hosei subspecies, all of which are native to the island of Borneo. One of the world's most endangered primates, Miller's langur, was once considered extinct until it was rediscovered in 2013.

    Miss Waldron’s Red Colobus

    Species Name: Piliocolobus waldronae
    Miss Waldron's red colobus (Piliocolobus waldronae) is endemic to West Africa. Miss Waldron's red colobus was discovered in December 1933 by Willoughby P. Lowe, a collector at the British Museum (Natural History).

    Mitered Langur

    Species Name: Presbytis mitrata
    The mitered langur has brown or gray fur on its back, darker, while it is even darker on its belly and the arms, legs, and tail. These Indonesian primates live in groups of 1 male with 5 to 17 females.

    Mona Monkey

    Species Name: Cercopithecus mona
    The Mona monkey (Cercopithecus mona) is an Old World monkey living between Cameroon and Ghana in West Africa. Mona monkeys live in large groups of 5 to 50 individuals.

    Moor Macaque

    Species Name: Macaca maura
    The moor macaque (Macaca maura) is a brown/black haired macaque with a pale rump and bare pink rump skin. Moor macaques appear to be a relatively tolerant macaque species, showing low levels of aggression between group members.

    Moustached Guenon

    Species Name: Cercopithecus cephus
    The mustached monkey or moustached guenon (Cercopithecus cephus) is a primate species in the Cercopithecidae family. Moustached monkeys take regular paths through the branches, with each monkey following the next along the same path.
    Gray Monkeys

    Nepal Gray Langur

    The Nepal gray langur (Semnopithecus schistaceus) is a gray langur native to the Himalayas of Nepal, extreme southwestern Tibet, northern Pakistan, northern India, Bhutan, and possibly Afghanistan. The Nepal gray langur is both terrestrial and arboreal.

    Niger Delta Red Colobus

    Species Name: Piliocolobus epieni
    The Niger Delta red colobus (Piliocolobus epieni) is a critically endangered colobus native to the western part of the Niger Delta in southern Nigeria. The scientific name of the Niger Delta red colobus, Piliocolobus epieni, comes from the local Ijaw language word for the species, "epieni".

    Nilgiri Langur

    Species Name: Semnopithecus johnii
    The Nilgiri langur (Semnopithecus johnii), also called the black-leaf monkey, John's langur, and Indian hooded leaf monkey is a langur (a species of Old-World monkey) found in the Nilgiri foothills of the Western Ghats in southern India.

    North Sumatran Leaf Monkey

    Species Name: Presbytis thomasi
    The North Sumatran leaf monkey (Presbytis thomasi), also called Thomas's langur, is a primate species in the Cercopithecidae family. The North Sumatran leaf monkeys spend most of the day in groups resting, moving, or feeding.

    Northern Pig-tailed Macaque

    Species Name: Macaca leonina
    The northern pig-tailed macaque (Macaca leonina) is a macaque species in the Cercopithecidae family. Typical of this group of Old World monkeys, northern pig-tailed monkeys are gregarious, living in social groups of 9-81 individuals.

    Olive Baboon

    Species Name: Papio anubis
    The Olive baboon (Papio anubis), also called the Anubis baboon, is a species of the Cercopithecidae family of Old-World monkeys. The name comes from the Egyptian god Anubis.

    Olive Colobus

    Species Name: Procolobus verus
    The olive colobus (Procolobus verus), also called the Van Beneden's colobus or green colobus is a primate species in the Cercopithecidae family. It is the smallest specimen of all the Colobine monkeys. It is rarely seen in its natural habitat due to its secretive nature and cryptic coloration.

    Oustalet’s Red Colobus

    Species Name: Piliocolobus oustaleti
    (Piliocolobus oustaleti) is another species of red colobus that lives in various forest types in the southern Central African Republic, southern South Sudan, northern Democratic Republic of the Congo, and northeastern Congo.

    Pagai Island Macaque

    Species Name: Macaca pagensis
    The Pagai island macaque (Macaca pagensis), also called the Pagai or Bokkoi macaque is an Old-World monkey native to the Mentawai Islands on the west coast of Sumatra. Groups of Pagai Island macaques consist of approximately 5 to 25 individuals.

    Pale-Thighed Langur

    Species Name: Presbytis siamensis
    The pale-thighed surili (Presbytis siamensis), also called the white-thighed langur, is a primate species in the Old World monkey family (Cercopithecidae). Pale-thighed langurs are savvy herbivores; it's fun to say they only eat plants and have a fussy palate, with a preference for young leaves, seeds, and fruits.

    Patas Monkey

    Species Name: Erythrocebus patas
    The Patas Monkey (Erythrocebus patas), also called the Hussar Monkey or Wadi Monkey is a terrestrial monkey distributed in semi-arid areas of West and East Africa. The patas monkey lives in multi-female groups of about 60 individuals (although much larger aggregations have been reported).

    Pennant’s Red Colobus

    Species Name: Piliocolobus pennantii
    Pennant's Colobus or Pennant's Red Colobus (Piliocolobus pennantii) is a species of arboreal primate in the Cercopithecidae family. Like other red colobus monkeys, the Pennant's red colobus lives in flocks that may consist of 12 to 80 individuals occupying a territory of 25 to 150 hectares.

    Phayre’s Langur

    Species Name: Trachypithecus phayrei
    Phayre's leaf monkey (Trachypithecus phayrei), also called the Phayre's langur, is a species of Lutung endemic to South and Southeast Asia. The name commemorates the late Sir Arthur Purves Phayre, a lieutenant general in the British Indian Army and commissioner of the entire province of former British Burma.

    Pig-tailed Langur

    Species Name: Simias concolor
    The pig-tailed langur (Simias concolor), monotypic in the Simias genus, is a great Old-World monkey native to several small islands off Sumatra, Indonesia. Adult pig-tailed langurs have black faces and small, turned-up noses.

    Popa Langur

    Species Name: Trachypithecus popa
    Popa langur (Trachypithecus popa) is a primate species in the Cercopithecidae family. It occurs exclusively in Myanmar. The species is named after Mount Popa, where a population of 100 monkeys lives.

    Preuss’s Red Colobus

    Species Name: Piliocolobus preussi
    Preuss's red colobus (Piliocolobus preussi) is native to the Cross-Sanaga Rivers eco-region. These old-world monkeys are restricted to small areas in Cameroon and Nigeria but once occupied a much larger area.

    Proboscis Monkey

    Species Name: Nasalis larvatus
    The proboscis monkey (Nasalis larvatus) is an Old World arboreal species with an unusually large nose, reddish-brown skin color, and a long tail. The proboscis monkey is a large species and one of the largest old-world monkey species native to Asia.

    Purple-faced Langur

    Species Name: Semnopithecus vetulus
    The purple-faced langur (Semnopithecus vetulus), also called the purple-faced leaf monkey, is an Old World species native to Sri Lanka. The purple-faced langur is found in the closed forests of Sri Lanka's mountains and in the southwestern part of the country known as the 'wetland'.

    Red-eared Guenon

    Species Name: Cercopithecus erythrotis
    The red-eared guenon (Cercopithecus erythrotis), also called the russet-eared guenon or red-eared monkey is endemic to the tropical and subtropical lowland rainforests of Nigeria, Equatorial Guinea, and Cameroon.

    Red-Shanked Douc Langur

    Species Name: Pygathrix nemaeus
    The red-shanked douc langur is an Old-World monkey species that is one of the most colorful primates. Red-shanked douc langurs are genetically similar to gray-shanked douc langurs; however, they are considered a different species due to their different biological characteristics.

    Rhesus Macaque

    Species Name: Macaca mulatta
    The rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta), commonly known as the rhesus monkey, is a species of Old-World monkey. Rhesus monkeys are diurnal animals, both arboreal and terrestrial.

    Robinson’s Banded Langur

    Species Name: Presbytis robinsoni
    Robinson's banded langur (Presbytis robinsoni), also known as Robinson's banded surili, is a monkey species in the Cercopithecidae family. Robinson Banded Langurs are generally shy and alert creatures, rarely leaving the comfort of the canopy.

    Roloway Monkey

    Species Name: Cercopithecus roloway
    Roloway monkeys (Cercopithecus roloway), also called Roloway guenons, are Old World monkeys native to Ghana and the Ivory Coast. Roloway monkeys resemble Diana monkeys in appearance, a species with which they were once confused.

    Saban Grizzled Langur

    Species Name: Presbytis sabana
    Saban Grizzled Langur was once thought to be a subspecies of the Hose's langur, Presbytis hosei (as Presbytis hosei sabana). The Saban grizzled langur is endemic to the island of Borneo in the Malaysian province of Sabah, with part of its range in Indonesia.

    Sanje Mangabey

    Species Name: Cercocebus sanjei
    Sanje mangabey, also called the Sanje crested mangabey and Sanje River mangabey, are Old World monkeys endemic to Tanzania, a sovereign state in East Africa. Some Sanje mangabeys prefer their own company to that of others and live alone.

    Schmidt’s Red-tailed Monkey

    Species Name: Cercopithecus ascanius
    The Schmidt's red-tailed monkey, also called the red-tailed guenon, Schmidt's guenon, or black-cheeked white-nosed monkey is a primate species in the Cercopithecidae family. The Schmidt's red-tailed monkey is named for its red coloration on the underside of its tail, as well as the bicolor coloration of its tail as the reddish color increases from the base to the tip.

    Selangor Silvered Langur

    Species Name: Trachypithecus selangorensis
    The Selangor silvered langur (Trachypithecus selangorensis) is a leaf monkey living on the west coast of the Malay Peninsula. Like most leaf monkeys, the Selangor silvered langur usually lives in groups of a single adult male and several adult females and their young offspring.

    Semliki Red Colobus

    Species Name: Piliocolobus semlikiensis
    The Semliki red colobus (Piliocolobus semlikiensis) is native to central Africa. The Semliki red colobus lives in the ironwood forest of the northeastern Democratic Republic of the Congo between the Rwenzori Mountains and the Semliki River valley.

    Shan State Langur

    Species Name: Trachypithecus melamerus
    Shan State Langur was generally considered a subspecies or a synonym of Phayre's leaf monkey (Trachypithecus phayrei) until Roos et al. elevated it to species status in 2020.

    Shortridge’s Capped Langur

    Species Name: Trachypithecus shortridgei
    The Shortridge's capped langur (Trachypithecus shortridgei) is a colobine primate inhabiting low to medium evergreen and semi-evergreen forests east of the Chindwin River in northeastern Myanmar and southwestern Myanmar, China, in the Nu and Dulong valleys.

    Siberut Langur

    Species Name: Presbytis siberu
    Siberut langurs are native to the islands of North Pagai, South Pagai, and Sipora. Siberut langurs spend over 80 percent of their time resting and foraging and only a tiny portion traveling and socializing.

    Silvered Langur

    Species Name: Trachypithecus cristatus
    The silvery Lutung (Trachypithecus cristatus), also called the silvery langur or silvered leaf monkey is an Old-World monkey. Silvery Lutungs primarily live in trees.

    Sooty Mangabey

    Species Name: Cercocebus atys
    The sooty mangabey, also called the white-collared or white-crowned mangabey is a predominantly terrestrial Old-World monkey. Sooty mangabeys remember the location of the fallen fruit and can tell whether or not a tree is bearing fruit.

    Stump-tailed Macaque

    Species Name: Macaca arctoides
    The stump-tailed macaque, also known as the bear macaque, is an Old World monkey endemic to Cambodia, northeastern India, southwestern China, Myanmar, and Laos, from northwestern Peninsular Malaysia, Vietnam, and Thailand.

    Sunda Pig-Tailed Macaque

    Species Name: Macaca nemestrina
    The pig-tailed macaque (Macaca nemestrina), also called the Sundaland pig-tailed macaque and Sunda pig-tailed macaque is a medium-sized macaque native to southern Thailand, Indonesia, and Malaysia. Pig-tailed macaques also have long legs and hairless snouts.

    Tana River Mangabey

    Species Name: Cercocebus galeritus
    Tana River Mangabeys are medium-sized monkeys with long, light gray hair covering most of their bodies. Tana River Mangabeys are highly social animals, living in multi-female social groups averaging 27 individuals in size.

    Tana River Red Colobus

    Species Name: Piliocolobus rufomitratus
    The Tana River red colobus (Piliocolobus rufomitratus), also called the eastern red colobus, is a critically endangered primate species in the Cercopithecidae family. The Tana River red colobus monkeys are the only one of 18 species of red colobus that do not live in the tropical rainforest.

    Tantalus Monkey

    Species Name: Chlorocebus tantalus
    The tantalus monkey (Chlorocebus tantalus) is an Old World monkey endemic to Africa, ranging from Ghana to Sudan. It was initially described as a subspecies of Grivet (Chlorocebus aethiops). Tantalus monkeys are very similar to vervet monkeys but are smaller in size.

    Tarai Gray Langur

    Species Name: Semnopithecus hector
    The Tarai gray langur (Semnopithecus hector) is an Old-World monkey and was once thought to be a subspecies of the northern plains gray langur. The Latin name for Tarai gray langurs is inspired by Hector, the prince of Troy.

    Tenasserim Langur

    Species Name: Trachypithecus barbei
    Tenasserim lutung (Trachypithecus barbei) is a species of lutung. It occurs in Thailand and Myanmar. The species derived its common name from the Tenasserim Hills.

    Thollon’s Red Colobus

    Species Name: Piliocolobus tholloni
    The Thollon's red colobus (Piliocolobus tholloni), also called the Tshuapa red colobus, is native to the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the Lower Republic of the Congo. It was recognized as a separate species by Dandelot in 1974, followed by Groves in 2001.

    Tibetan Macaque

    Species Name: Macaca thibetana
    The Tibetan macaque (Macaca thibetana), also called the Chinese stump-tailed macaque is a macaque native to eastern Tibet, eastern Guangdong, and northern Shaanxi in China. Tibetan macaques are the largest of the macaques and have a strong, muscular build with dense fur that ranges in color from gray to brown.

    Tonkean Macaque

    Species Name: Macaca tonkeana
    Tonkean macaques also known as Tonkean black macaques, are endemic to the central part of the island of Sulawesi and the neighboring Togian Islands in Indonesia. Tonkea macaques are pretty intelligent and creative.

    Toque Macaque

    Species Name: Macaca sinica
    The toque macaque (Macaca sinica) is a red-brown Old World monkey endemic to Sri Lanka, known as the rilewa or rilawa. Its common name refers to the strand of hair on its head that resembles a brimless hat.

    Tufted Gray Langur

    Species Name: Semnopithecus priam
    The tufted gray langur (Semnopithecus priam), also called the Coromandel sacred langur and the Madras gray langur, is an Old-World monkey, one of the langur species. These langurs are generally shy and only descend when there is no visible danger.

    Udzungwa Red Colobus

    Species Name: Piliocolobus gordonorum
    The Udzungwa red colobus (Piliocolobus gordonorum), also called the Iringa red colobus or the Uzungwa red colobus is endemic to Tanzania.

    Ulindi River Red Colobus

    Species Name: Piliocolobus lulindicus
    The Ulindi River red colobus (Piliocolobus lulindicus) is native to the Democratic Republic of the Congo. This Red Colobus species is named after the Ulindi River.

    Ursine Colobus

    Species Name: Colobus vellerosus
    The white-thighed colobus (Colobus vellerosus), also known as ursine colobus, white-thighed black-and-white colobus, and Geoffroy's black-and-white colobus, is a species of primate in the Cercopithecidae family.

    Vervet Monkey

    Species Name: Chlorocebus pygerythrus
    The vervet monkey (Chlorocebus pygerythrus) is an Old World monkey of the Cercopithecidae family endemic to southern and eastern Africa. Not only can vervet monkeys skilfully navigate through the treetops, but they can also swim.

    West Javan Langur

    Species Name: Trachypithecus mauritius
    The West Javan langur (Trachypithecus mauritius) is an Old-World monkey of the Colobinae subfamily. It was previously considered a subspecies of Trachypithecus auratus until Roos and Groves raised it to its own species.

    Western Red Colobus

    Species Name: Piliocolobus badius
    The western red colobus (Piliocolobus badius), also called the Upper Guinean red colobus, rust red colobus, or bay red colobus is a species of Old-World monkey found in the forests of West Africa, from Senegal to Ghana.

    White-Cheeked Macaque

    Species Name: Macaca leucogenys
    The white-cheeked macaque (Macaca leucogenys) is found only in Medog County in southeastern Tibet and the Arunachal Pradesh state of India. The species was first discovered and described by Chinese primatologists Peng-Fei Fan, Cheng Li, and Chao Zhao in the American Journal of Primatology in 2015.

    White-fronted Langur

    Species Name: Presbytis frontata
    The white-fronted surili (Presbytis frontata) is a primate species in the Cercopithecidae family, the Old World monkeys. This species prefers to eat immature leaves than more mature leaves.

    White-headed Langur

    Species Name: Trachypithecus leucocephalus
    The white-headed langur (Trachypithecus leucocephalus) is an endangered species of langur native to Guangxi, China. As the common name suggests, a tuft of white fur covers this primate's head.

    White-naped Mangabey

    Species Name: Cercocebus lunulatus
    Cercocebus atys lunulatus now Cercocebus lunulatus, is commonly known as the white-naped, white-headed, or white-necked mangabey (confusing with the collared mangabey). These mangabeys can also distinguish between fruiting and non-fruiting trees and are more likely to approach fruiting trees.

    Wolf’s Mona Monkey

    Species Name: Cercopithecus wolfi
    The Wolf's mona monkey (Cercopithecus wolfi), also called the wolf monkey, is a colorful Old-World monkey in the Cercopithecidae family. Wolf's mona monkeys have huge cheek pouches.

    Yellow Baboon

    Species Name: Papio cynocephalus
    The yellow baboon (Papio cynocephalus) is another baboon species in the group of Old World monkeys. They resemble the Chacma baboon but are slightly smaller and have a less elongated snout. Yellow baboons also have white fur on internal surfaces, such as their cheeks and limbs, similar to the color of the human forearm.

    Zanzibar Red Colobus

    Species Name: Piliocolobus kirkii
    The Zanzibar red colobus (Piliocolobus kirkii) is endemic to Unguja, the main island of the Zanzibar archipelago off the coast of Tanzania. The Zanzibar red colobus, often referred to as Kirk's red colobus is named after Sir John Kirk, the British resident of Zanzibar who first spotted these creatures.

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    BioExplorer.net. (2022, November 30). Types of Old-World Monkeys. Bio Explorer. https://www.bioexplorer.net/animals/mammals/monkeys/old-world/.

    BioExplorer.net. "Types of Old-World Monkeys" Bio Explorer, 30 November 2022, https://www.bioexplorer.net/animals/mammals/monkeys/old-world/.

    BioExplorer.net. "Types of Old-World Monkeys" Bio Explorer, November 30 2022. https://www.bioexplorer.net/animals/mammals/monkeys/old-world/.

    Key References

    • [1]“Skull – ScienceDirect”. Accessed September 03, 2022. Link.
    • [2]“The Old World Monkeys”. Accessed September 03, 2022. Link.
    • [3]“Old World monkey – New World Encyclopedia”. Accessed September 03, 2022. Link.
    • [4]“Old-World Monkeys”. Accessed September 03, 2022. Link.
    • [5]“Fossil of Smallest Old World Monkey Species Discovered in Kenya | Arkansas Research”. Accessed September 03, 2022. Link.
    • [6]“Mandrill | San Diego Zoo Animals & Plants”. Accessed September 03, 2022. https://animals.sandiegozoo.org/animals/mandrill.
    • [7]“The Primates: Monkeys”. Accessed September 03, 2022. https://www2.palomar.edu/anthro/primate/prim_4.htm.
    • [8]“Old World Monkeys: Cercopithecids – The Psychological Well-Being of Nonhuman Primates – NCBI Bookshelf”. Accessed September 03, 2022. Link.
    • [9]“Monkeys – World, Species, Tree, and Primates – JRank Articles”. Accessed September 03, 2022. Link.


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