Langurs are Old-world monkeys classified under the Colobinae family along with other leaf-eating monkeys, including Colobus and proboscis monkeys. Still, there is an ongoing debate on langur classification based on genetic analysis as to which groups or tribes are hosting langurs.
Primarily, all langur species are grouped under the tribe Presbytini with 3 genera, namely Trachypithecus (Lutungs), Presbytis (Surilis), and Semnopithecus (Gray Langurs). They all live on the Asian continent.
Although some odd-nosed monkeys are called langurs, such as Doucs langurs (Pygathrix) or Pig-tailed langurs (Simias), they are also listed under langurs here.
From physical attributes perspective, all langurs are medium-sized monkeys with long tails. Langur babies start with one color and transform into darkened coloration during adulthood.
Langurs are mainly arboreal and live as small groups in various habitats, including rainforests and Savannahs, but not in dry places such as deserts.
As the tribe name suggests, all langurs are folivorous, meaning they feed on leaves, flowers, fruits, and small insects occasionally.
Anatomically, their digestion system is more sophisticated to digest complex wild leaves using a foregut fermentation process that detoxifies the complex plant compounds by bacteria before entering into the intestine. A similar digestion system can be witnessed in other herbivores such as deer, antelopes, and sloths.
Unlike other Old-world monkeys, langurs do not have cheek pouches.
The average lifespan of langurs is about 20 years and the gestation period is about 6 to 7 months for langurs.
The Annamese langur is another Old-World monkey in the subfamily Colobinae. Annamese langurs are covered in thick, gray fur. They have dark faces, and the space around the eyes is pale and forms a ring, often in the flesh. Trachypithecus margarita is a monotypic species as it has no subspecies.
The Banded langur, also known as the Raffles' banded langur or banded leaf monkey, is a primate species in the Cercopithecidae family. Like other Colobin monkeys, whose young typically have lighter-colored fur than adults, Banded langur infants have white or tan fur until it darkens around 6 months.
The Bengal sacred langur, also known as Hanuman's langur and the northern plains gray langur, is a primate species in the Cercopithecidae family. The Bengal sacred langurs are often referred to as "Hanuman's langurs", named after Lord Hanuman - the Hindu god.
The black-and-white langur is a primate species in the Cercopithecidae family. It was formerly thought to be a subspecies of the Presbytis melalophos (black-crested Sumatran langur). Still, the genetic analysis indicated they were separate species.
The black Sumatran langur is a species of monkey in the Cercopithecidae family that is endemic to Indonesia's Sumatra Island. Presbytis sumatrana was once considered a subspecies of Sumatran Surili. Still, genetic analysis has shown it to be a distinct species.
The black-crested Sumatran langur (Presbytis melalophos), also called the Mitred leaf monkey, is a primate species in the Cercopithecidae family. The black-crested Sumatran langur, Raffles' banded langur, Sarawak surili, and black-and-white langur were formerly considered subspecies of Presbytis melalophos.
The black-footed gray langur is an Old-World monkey, one of the langur species. Like other gray langurs, this species is a leaf-eating monkey in southern India. The black-footed gray langur is distributed throughout southwestern India (Kerala, Karnataka, and Goa) but is concentrated in the Western Ghats.
The capped langur is a type of monkey in the Cercopithecidae family. These langurs can vary in appearance. This Asian primate gets its name from the thick hairs on the top of the head, typically gray or black.
The white-headed langur, also called the Cat Ba langur, is an endangered species of langur native to Guangxi, China. Cat Ba langurs are comfortable in trees or ground but prefer steep cliffs where humans can't set foot.
The Sarawak surili, also known as Cross-marked Langur, is a monkey species in the Cercopithecidae family. The Sarawak surili was once considered widespread but has declined significantly due to habitat and loss persecution.
Dusky langurs also known as spectacled langurs, spectacled leaf monkeys, and dusky leaf monkeys, are primarily found in the Malay Peninsula in Asia. White rings surrounding the deep, dark eyes give the species its alternative name, the spectacled monkey or spectacled langur, for a "bespectacled" look.
The East Javan langur, also called the Javan lutung, Javan langur, or ebony langur is an Old-World primate in the subfamily Colobinae. As with all langurs, the East Javan langur is a social animal, living in groups of about 7 individuals, with 1 or 2 adult males in the group.
The East Sumatran banded langur also called the East Sumatran banded surili are primarily found in the fragmented landscape of pulp and rubber plantations. These surilis are shy and alert creatures, rarely leaving the comfort of their canopies.
The François langur, also called the white side-burned black langur, François leaf monkey, or Tonkin leaf monkey is a species of Lutung and the type species of its species group. The François langur is among the least studied langur species.
Gee's golden langur, also known simply as the golden langur, is an Old-World primate found in a small area of western Assam, India, and in the nearby foothills of the Black Mountains of Bhutan. Gee's golden langur was officially discovered in 1953 by Edward Pritchard Gee, an amateur naturalist and tea planter in Assam, India.
The Hatinh langur (Trachypithecus hatinhensis) is a critically endangered Old World monkey found in the limestone forests of Vietnam, particularly in Quảng Bình province. Contrary to their common name, the Hatinh langur is not known from the province of Hà Tĩnh.
The Indochinese black langur (Trachypithecus selbstus) is a little-known Lutung endemic to Laos and neighboring Vietnam. Because they live in dense forests and rarely venture outside, observing them in the wild can be difficult.
The Indochinese gray langur (Trachypithecus crepusculus) is a species of Lutung native to Southeast and East Asia. This species was once thought to be conspecific with the Phayre's leaf monkey (Trachypithecus phayrei).
The Kashmir gray langur is an Old-World monkey, one of the species of langurs. The Kashmiri gray langur derives its scientific name, Semnopithecus ajax, from a character in the ancient Greek poem - The Iliad - set during the Trojan War.
The Laotian langur (Trachypithecus laotum), also known as white-browed black langur, is another primate species that nest in small limestone caves and holes that shelter from predators, rain, and cold.
Mentawai Langur is also called the Long-Tailed Langur, and it is native to the Mentawai Islands in Indonesia. The pelage of Mentawai langur is medium length, longer on the back of the shoulders and anterior of the flanks and shorter on the face, neck, abdomen, and under the thighs.
Miller's Langur (Presbytis canicrus), also called the Kutai Gray Langur, is the rarest of the four Hosei subspecies, all of which are native to the island of Borneo. One of the world's most endangered primates, Miller's langur, was once considered extinct until it was rediscovered in 2013.
The mitered langur has brown or gray fur on its back, darker, while it is even darker on its belly and the arms, legs, and tail. These Indonesian primates live in groups of 1 male with 5 to 17 females.
The Nepal gray langur (Semnopithecus schistaceus) is a gray langur native to the Himalayas of Nepal, extreme southwestern Tibet, northern Pakistan, northern India, Bhutan, and possibly Afghanistan. The Nepal gray langur is both terrestrial and arboreal.
The Nilgiri langur (Semnopithecus johnii), also called the black-leaf monkey, John's langur, and Indian hooded leaf monkey is a langur (a species of Old-World monkey) found in the Nilgiri foothills of the Western Ghats in southern India.
The North Sumatran leaf monkey (Presbytis thomasi), also called Thomas's langur, is a primate species in the Cercopithecidae family. The North Sumatran leaf monkeys spend most of the day in groups resting, moving, or feeding.
The pale-thighed surili (Presbytis siamensis), also called the white-thighed langur, is a primate species in the Old World monkey family (Cercopithecidae). Pale-thighed langurs are savvy herbivores; it's fun to say they only eat plants and have a fussy palate, with a preference for young leaves, seeds, and fruits.
Phayre's leaf monkey (Trachypithecus phayrei), also called the Phayre's langur, is a species of Lutung endemic to South and Southeast Asia. The name commemorates the late Sir Arthur Purves Phayre, a lieutenant general in the British Indian Army and commissioner of the entire province of former British Burma.
The pig-tailed langur (Simias concolor), monotypic in the Simias genus, is a great Old-World monkey native to several small islands off Sumatra, Indonesia. Adult pig-tailed langurs have black faces and small, turned-up noses.
The proboscis monkey (Nasalis larvatus) is an Old World arboreal species with an unusually large nose, reddish-brown skin color, and a long tail. The proboscis monkey is a large species and one of the largest old-world monkey species native to Asia.
The purple-faced langur (Semnopithecus vetulus), also called the purple-faced leaf monkey, is an Old World species native to Sri Lanka. The purple-faced langur is found in the closed forests of Sri Lanka's mountains and in the southwestern part of the country known as the 'wetland'.
The red-shanked douc langur is an Old-World monkey species that is one of the most colorful primates. Red-shanked douc langurs are genetically similar to gray-shanked douc langurs; however, they are considered a different species due to their different biological characteristics.
Robinson's banded langur (Presbytis robinsoni), also known as Robinson's banded surili, is a monkey species in the Cercopithecidae family. Robinson Banded Langurs are generally shy and alert creatures, rarely leaving the comfort of the canopy.
Saban Grizzled Langur was once thought to be a subspecies of the Hose's langur, Presbytis hosei (as Presbytis hosei sabana). The Saban grizzled langur is endemic to the island of Borneo in the Malaysian province of Sabah, with part of its range in Indonesia.
The Selangor silvered langur (Trachypithecus selangorensis) is a leaf monkey living on the west coast of the Malay Peninsula. Like most leaf monkeys, the Selangor silvered langur usually lives in groups of a single adult male and several adult females and their young offspring.
The Shortridge's capped langur (Trachypithecus shortridgei) is a colobine primate inhabiting low to medium evergreen and semi-evergreen forests east of the Chindwin River in northeastern Myanmar and southwestern Myanmar, China, in the Nu and Dulong valleys.
Siberut langurs are native to the islands of North Pagai, South Pagai, and Sipora. Siberut langurs spend over 80 percent of their time resting and foraging and only a tiny portion traveling and socializing.
The Tarai gray langur (Semnopithecus hector) is an Old-World monkey and was once thought to be a subspecies of the northern plains gray langur. The Latin name for Tarai gray langurs is inspired by Hector, the prince of Troy.
The tufted gray langur (Semnopithecus priam), also called the Coromandel sacred langur and the Madras gray langur, is an Old-World monkey, one of the langur species. These langurs are generally shy and only descend when there is no visible danger.
The West Javan langur (Trachypithecus mauritius) is an Old-World monkey of the Colobinae subfamily. It was previously considered a subspecies of Trachypithecus auratus until Roos and Groves raised it to its own species.