Hamadryas Baboon

Kingdom Order Family Genus Species
Animalia Primates Cercopithecidae Papio Papio hamadryas
Hamadryas Baboon
IUCN Status: Least-Concern
  • Common Name: Hamadryas Baboon
  • Taxonomy Classification Year: 1758
  • Monkey Size: 61.0 to 76.2 cm (24.02 to 30.00 in)
  • Skin Color(s): Grayish-brown to olive-brown
  • Habitat: Desert or dune, savanna or grassland, mountains
  • Diet: Omnivorous
  • Native Countries: Ethiopia, Somalia, Eritrea

Hamadryas Baboon Distribution

Hamadryas Baboon Characteristics

Hamadryas Baboon

The Hamadryas baboon[1] (Papio hamadryas) is a baboon species in the Old World monkey family.

  • It’s the northernmost of all baboons and is native to the Horn of Africa and the southwestern region of the Arabian Peninsula.
  • These species are highly sexually dimorphic in size and fur character. Adult males weigh about 21.5 kg and females approximately 9.4 kg.
  • The coat of the males is grayish, mainly brown, with the belly colored like the back or darker.
  • The cheek hair is lighter and forms “whiskers” that merge into a distinct, fluffy silver mane.
  • The long back hair is wavy. Females are solid olive-brown. The skin can be highly colored in some individuals.
  • In both male and female species, the skin surrounding the ischial callosities is bright red or pink.
  • Males have a similar fur color on the face and muzzle, while females have dull, grayish-brown faces.
  • The tail is long and curved, with an elegant arch at the base.
  • The natal coat is black, although it sheds around 6 months of age when it is replaced by olive-brown fur like that of the adult female.

Hamadryas Baboon

What Eats Hamadryas Baboons?

What Eats Hamadryas Baboons?

Verreaux’s Eagle (Aquila verreauxii), Leopards (Panthera pardus) and Caracals (Caracal caracal) are the predators of Hamadryas Baboons[§] in the wild.

Hamadryas Baboon Facts

Papio Hamadryas

  • The Hamadryas baboon was a sacred animal to the ancient Egyptians. It appeared in various roles in ancient Egyptian religion, hence its alternative common name, “sacred baboon“.
  • They are very social animals, displaying a complex, multi-level social structure.
  • Groups of Hamadryas baboons appear to play an essential role in enabling baboons to compete for roosting and access to watering holes.
  • Males seem to bond with kin throughout their lives. In this respect, Hamadryas baboons differ from other representatives of the Papio genus.
  • All hamadryas baboons except infants grunt rhythmically when approaching another animal to indicate intentions of an affiliation.

Suggested Reading: Various Types of Monkeys

Cite This Page

BioExplorer.net. (2023, June 05). Hamadryas Baboon. Bio Explorer. https://www.bioexplorer.net/animals/mammals/monkeys/hamadryas-baboon/.
BioExplorer.net. "Hamadryas Baboon" Bio Explorer, 05 June 2023, https://www.bioexplorer.net/animals/mammals/monkeys/hamadryas-baboon/.
BioExplorer.net. "Hamadryas Baboon" Bio Explorer, June 05 2023. https://www.bioexplorer.net/animals/mammals/monkeys/hamadryas-baboon/.
Key References
  • [1]“Hamadryas Baboon | San Diego Zoo Animals & Plants”. Accessed September 17, 2022. Link.
  • [§] – Middleton, O.S, Svensson, H, Scharlemann, J.P.W, Faurby, S, Sandom, C.J. CarniDIET 1.0: A database of terrestrial carnivorous mammal diets. Global Ecology and Biogeography. https://doi.org/10.1111/geb.13296. Craig, Christie A., Eleanor I. Brassine, and Daniel M. Parker. “A record of cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) diet in the Northern Tuli Game Reserve, Botswana.” African Journal of Ecology 55.4 (2017): 697-700.


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