Many brown-colored monkeys are critically endangered by the IUCN. Most of the brown monkeys hail from South America. Brown Howler, Brown-backed Bearded Saki, and Brown-mantled Tamarin are a few examples of different types of brown monkeys.
Explore all brown monkeys in the primates’ order below.
Species Name: Allenopithecus nigroviridis Skin Color(s): Brown, gray and green
Allen's swamp monkeys are small, stocky monkeys with gray to brown fur and long tails. These highly social primates live in the swamp forests of central Africa, where they mostly spend their time in the trees. It was named after Joel Asaph Allen, an American zoologist.
Species Name: Cacajao ayresi Skin Color(s): Reddish Brown
The Aracá uakari, also called the Ayres black uakari, is a newly described monkey species endemic to the northwestern Brazilian Amazon. The species was found by Jean-Philippe Boubli of the University of Auckland after following local Yanomamo Indians on their hunts along the Aracá River, a northern tributary of the Negro River.
Species Name: Macaca munzala Skin Color(s): Yellowish-Brown
The Arunachal macaque is a comparatively sizeable brown primate with a relatively short tail. Arunachal macaques were first classified into Cercopithecidae's taxonomy in 2005 by primatologists Madhusudan and Mishra.
Species Name: Piliocolobus tephrosceles Skin Color(s): Black, dark grey, reddish Brown
The Ashy-red Colobus or Ugandan red Colobus is an endangered species of red Colobus endemic to Eastern Africa. Like other colobus monkeys, Ashy Red has small thumbs that allow it to comfortably grip branches and swing nimbly through the canopy. In 2001, the ashy-red Colobus was recognized as a separate species.
Species Name: Macaca assamensis Skin Color(s): Yellowish-grey and dark Brown
The Assam macaque, also known as Assamese macaque, is a macaque of the Old-World monkey family endemic to South and Southeast Asia. Assam is another state in India. Eating everything from fruits to 55 types of flowers, leaves, seeds, and bark, these macaque monkeys adapt their diet to suit their habitat.
Species Name: Cacajao calvus Skin Color(s): Orange, Brown, red
The bald uakari is an Amazon primate with special traits: it has a glossy red bald face, a short tail, and reddish fur. This monkey is highly specialized and is mainly found in palm habitats. The conspicuous crimson color is caused by blood flow under the skin, specifically a thinner epidermis with a higher concentration of capillaries on the face.
Species Name: Chlorocebus djamdjamensis Skin Color(s): Dark Brown
The Bale monkey, also called the Bale Mountain Vervet, is an endangered, forest-dwelling arboreal primate restricted to a small range in the southern highlands of Ethiopia. The bale monkey depends primarily on a single species of bamboo (Arundinaria Alpina) and favors a bamboo forest habitat. These African primates feature small round heads, and their bodies are covered with a layer of dark-brown fur.
Species Name: Macaca sylvanus Skin Color(s): Light yellowish Brown
The Barbary macaque, also called the Magot macaque, is a macaque endemic to the Atlas Mountains in Morocco and Algeria and a small introduced population in Gibraltar. Before the Ice Age, they inhabited the Mediterranean coasts and most of Europe, as far away as the British Isles and Germany.
Species Name: Sapajus libidinosus Skin Color(s): Golden-yellow, dark-Brown
The bearded capuchin, also called the black-striped capuchin, is a New World monkey in the Cebidae family. They are found in central and northern Brazil. Until recently, the bearded capuchins were considered a subspecies of Tufted Capuchins.
Species Name: Sapajus nigritus Skin Color(s): Black, Brown
The black capuchin, also called the black-horned capuchin, is a capuchin monkey native to the Atlantic rainforest of southeastern Brazil and extreme northeastern Argentina. The black capuchin was originally called Cebus nigritus or Cebus apella nigritus. Although this has changed, many sources still name the black capuchin as part of the Cebus genus.
Species Name: Alouatta caraya Skin Color(s): Black or yellow-Brown
Alouatta caraya is found in the tropical rain forests of central South America, extending through eastern Bolivia, Paraguay, southern Brazil, and northern Argentina. Alouatta Caraya monkeys are sexually dimorphic, with males weighing an average of 6.7 kg and females an average of 4.4 kg.
Species Name: Presbytis sumatrana Skin Color(s): Brownish-gray, medium-gray
The black Sumatran langur is a species of monkey in the Cercopithecidae family that is endemic to Indonesia's Sumatra Island. Presbytis sumatrana was once considered a subspecies of Sumatran Surili. Still, genetic analysis has shown it to be a distinct species.
Species Name: Saimiri boliviensis Skin Color(s): Gray to olive-Brown hue
The black-capped squirrel monkey is a New-World primate species endemic to the upper Amazon basin in Bolivia, eastern Peru, and western Brazil. Primarily, black-capped squirrel monkeys are arboreal and found in native and plantation forests and some managed areas close to running water.
Species Name: Presbytis melalophos Skin Color(s): Brownish-gray
The black-crested Sumatran langur (Presbytis melalophos), also called the Mitred leaf monkey, is a primate species in the Cercopithecidae family. The black-crested Sumatran langur, Raffles' banded langur, Sarawak surili, and black-and-white langur were formerly considered subspecies of Presbytis melalophos.
Species Name: Semnopithecus hypoleucos Skin Color(s): Brownish-gray
The black-footed gray langur is an Old-World monkey, one of the langur species. Like other gray langurs, this species is a leaf-eating monkey in southern India. The black-footed gray langur is distributed throughout southwestern India (Kerala, Karnataka, and Goa) but is concentrated in the Western Ghats.
Species Name: Mico melanurus Skin Color(s): Dark Brown
The black-tailed marmoset is a New-World monkey species native to central South America. It is distributed from south-central Amazonia in Brazil to the Chaco far north of Paraguay. Black-tailed marmosets are arboreal and diurnal, using their claws for tree climbing.
Species Name: Macaca radiata Skin Color(s): Gray or golden-Brown
The Bonnet Macaque, also called Zati, is a species of macaque native to southern India. Bonnet macaques get their common name from a unique feature: a hood-like tuft of hair that extends from the top of their head, much like a tuft of dry grass. Their marble-round eyes look out into the world with a very expressive forehead.
Species Name: Piliocolobus bouvieri Skin Color(s): Brownish-red
Bouvier's Red Colobus was rediscovered in 2015 in the Republic of Congo after four decades without confirmed sightings. These African primates live in the swampy forests surrounding the Congo River, between the mouths of the Oubangui and Alima rivers.
Species Name: Saguinus bicolor Skin Color(s): Brown, black, or silver
The pied tamarin, also known as the pied bare-faced tamarin or Brazilian bare-faced tamarin, has one of the smallest home ranges of any primate in the world, located in and around the port city of Manaus.
Species Name: Alouatta guariba Skin Color(s): Brown, reddish-orange or black
The brown howler monkey, also called the brown howler monkey, is a species of New World monkey that lives in the forests of southeastern Brazil and northeastern Argentina. Despite the common name "brown howler", its color is remarkably variable, with some individuals mainly appearing black or reddish-orange.
Species Name: Trachypithecus pileatus Skin Color(s): Gray, Brown, or black
The capped langur is a type of monkey in the Cercopithecidae family. These langurs can vary in appearance. This Asian primate gets its name from the thick hairs on the top of the head, typically gray or black.
Species Name: Trachypithecus poliocephalus Skin Color(s): Black or dark Brown
The white-headed langur, also called the Cat Ba langur, is an endangered species of langur native to Guangxi, China. Cat Ba langurs are comfortable in trees or ground but prefer steep cliffs where humans can't set foot.
Species Name: Saimiri oerstedii Skin Color(s): Yellow Brown
The Central American squirrel monkey also called the red-backed squirrel monkey, is a squirrel monkey type native to the Pacific coast of Panama and Costa Rica. Central American squirrel monkeys spend most of their lives in the middle and upper layers of the tree canopy.
Species Name: Papio ursinus Skin Color(s): Light gray or dark olive-Brown
Like all other baboons, the Chacma baboon, the Cape baboon, belongs to the Old-World monkey family. Chacma baboons have a habit of flipping over rocks in search of food. So, it's pretty easy to spot where a group of Chacmas once foraged.
Species Name: Callithrix jacchus Skin Color(s): Grayish Brown
The common marmoset, also known as white-tufted-ear marmoset or white-tufted marmoset, is a type of New World monkey. As they have adapted to life at the forest edge of southeastern Brazil, common marmosets have also learned to take advantage of the region's plantations.
Species Name: Saguinus oedipus Skin Color(s): Brown
The cotton-top tamarin is another small New-World primate found at the edge of tropical and secondary forests in northwestern Colombia. The common names "cotton-headed tamarin" and "cotton-top tamarin" are derived from the white hairs that spread across the head and flow down the neck.
Species Name: Macaca fascicularis Skin Color(s): Gray or red-Brown
The crab-eating macaque also called the long-tailed macaque and known in laboratories as the cynomolgus monkey, is a primate monkey endemic to Southeast Asia. Crab-eating macaque macaques live in multi-male groups comprising around 30 members.
Species Name: Cercopithecus pogonias Skin Color(s): Brown
The crested mona monkey, also called the golden-bellied monkey, golden-bellied guenon, or crowned guenon, is a species of African primate in the Cercopithecidae family in west-central Africa. Like many species of Cercopithecus, the crested mona monkey has large cheek pouches that it fills with seeds and fruit while foraging for food.
Species Name: Presbytis chrysomelas Skin Color(s): Gray-black or Brown
The Sarawak surili, also known as Cross-marked Langur, is a monkey species in the Cercopithecidae family. The Sarawak surili was once considered widespread but has declined significantly due to habitat and loss persecution.
Species Name: Mandrillus leucophaeus Skin Color(s): Dark grey-Brown
The Drill is a primate in the Cercopithecidae family (Old-World monkeys), related to baboons and even more closely to mandrills. Like mandrills, drills are highly social animals that live in groups of around 20 individuals with multiple males and females, with one male dominating reproductive decisions.
Species Name: Macaca cyclopis Skin Color(s): Dark gray to Brown
The Formosan rock macaque also called the Taiwanese macaque, or Formosan rock monkey, is a macaque native to the island of Taiwan. Aside from humans, Formosan rock macaques are the only native primates living in Taiwan.
Species Name: Theropithecus gelada Skin Color(s): Brown
The gelada often called the gelada baboon, or the bleeding-heart monkey, is an Old-World monkey found only in the Ethiopian highlands. Geladas aren't territorial, and it is not unusual to find congregations of separate groups foraging together when conditions are favorable.
Species Name: Ateles geoffroyi Skin Color(s): Black, Brown, or reddish
Geoffroy's spider monkey also called the Central American spider monkey or black-handed spider monkey, is a species of spider monkey. The species name geoffroyi is honored by Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, a French naturalist.
Species Name: Saguinus geoffroyi Skin Color(s): Black-Brown-yellow
Geoffroy's tamarin, also called the Panamanian tamarin, red-crested tamarin, or rufous-naped marmoset tamarin, is a tamarin, a small monkey found in Colombia and Panama. In what may seem like a role reversal in many monkey species, Geoffroy's tamarins are led by the oldest female in a group.
Species Name: Callimico goeldii Skin Color(s): Black or dark Brown
Goeldi marmoset or Goeldi monkey is a small South American New-World monkey living in the upper Amazon basin region of Brazil, Bolivia, Ecuador, Colombia, and Peru. Goeldi marmosets generally stay less than 5 meters from the forest floor, moving to higher elevations for fruit.
Species Name: Sapajus xanthosternos Skin Color(s): Light or dark Brown
The golden-bellied capuchin (Sapajus xanthosternos), also called the buff-headed or yellow-breasted capuchin is a New World monkey species. They spend much time grooming one another for socialization, with the alpha species receiving the most attention.
Species Name: Cercocebus chrysogaster Skin Color(s): Brown, black, white, or gray
The golden-bellied mangabey (Cercocebus chrysogaster) is a gregarious Old-World monkey found in humid, swampy forests south of the Congo River. Golden-bellied mangabeys are a migratory and social species, moving in groups of 8 to 30 members.
Species Name: Sapajus apella Skin Color(s): Brownish-gray
The tufted capuchin (Sapajus apella), also called the pin monkey, Guianan brown capuchin, or black-headed capuchin is a New World monkey native to South America and the Caribbean islands of Margarita and Trinidad.
Species Name: Pithecia pithecia Skin Color(s): Black to Brownish-gray
The white-faced saki (Pithecia pithecia), also known as the golden-faced saki, Guianan saki, and Guyana saki, is a New World saki monkey species. Typically, they have a lifespan of around 14 years in the wild and have lived up to 36 years in captivity.
Species Name: Cebus olivaceus Skin Color(s): Off-white to pale buff
The wedge-capped capuchin (Cebus olivaceus), also known as Guianan weeper capuchin, is a capuchin monkey native to South America. Wedge-capped capuchins get their name from a black triangle of dark fur centered on their forehead.
Species Name: Papio hamadryas Skin Color(s): Grayish-Brown to olive-Brown
The Hamadryas baboon (Papio hamadryas) is a baboon species in the Old World monkey family. The Hamadryas baboon was a sacred animal to the ancient Egyptians. It appeared in various roles in ancient Egyptian religion, hence its alternative common name, "sacred baboon".
Species Name: Rungwecebus kipunji Skin Color(s): Light or medium Brown
The kipunji (Rungwecebus kipunji), also called the highland mangabey, is an Old World monkey inhabiting the upland forests of Tanzania. Kipunji is active during the day and mostly confine their activity to trees and rarely reach the ground.
Species Name: Sapajus cay Skin Color(s): Light to dark Brown
The Azaras capuchin or hooded capuchin (Sapajus cay) is a robust capuchin species. It is found in northern Argentina, southeastern Bolivia, eastern Paraguay, and Brazil. Its habitat consists of humid, subtropical, semi-deciduous, gallery forests and forests in the Pantanales.
Species Name: Cebus albifrons Skin Color(s): Light Brown
Humboldt's white capuchins, also known as white-fronted capuchins, are a species of New-World monkeys and one of the smallest capuchin groups. Humboldt’s squirrel monkeys are usually led by a dominant male and female.
Species Name: Lagothrix lagothricha Skin Color(s): Gray, black, and Brown
Humboldt's woolly monkey, common woolly monkey, or brown woolly monkey (Lagothrix lagothricha) is a woolly monkey endemic to South America. Humboldt's woolly monkeys can show subtle mood swings and intentions with various facial expressions.
Species Name: Macaca fuscata Skin Color(s): Brownish gray, yellowish Brown
The Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata), also called the snow monkey, is a terrestrial Old World species of monkeys endemic to Japan. Japanese macaques from southern regions generally weigh less than those in northern regions of higher altitudes, where there is more snow during the winter months.
Species Name: Piliocolobus parmentieri Skin Color(s): Reddish-Brown
The Lomami red colobus (Piliocolobus parmentieri) is native to central Africa. The Lomani red colobus monkey has a restricted range in the lowland rainforest between the Lomani River and the Lualaba River in the central Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Species Name: Cercopithecus lowei Skin Color(s): Brownish-yellow
Lowe's Mona monkey (Cercopithecus lowei) is an Old-World monkey in the Cercopithecidae family found from Ghana to the Ivory Coast. Lowe's Mona monkeys generally consist of one male and several females.
Species Name: Saguinus midas Skin Color(s): Dark Brown or black
The Midas tamarin (Saguinus midas), also called the red-handed tamarin or golden-handed tamarin is a New-World monkey in the Callitrichidae family. Midas tamarin is also known as golden tamarin or red-handed tamarin. This attests to the remarkably vivid colors of the feet and hands.
Species Name: Presbytis mitrata Skin Color(s): Gray or Brown
The mitered langur has brown or gray fur on its back, darker, while it is even darker on its belly and the arms, legs, and tail. These Indonesian primates live in groups of 1 male with 5 to 17 females.
Species Name: Macaca maura Skin Color(s): Light Brown to a dark Brown
The moor macaque (Macaca maura) is a brown/black haired macaque with a pale rump and bare pink rump skin. Moor macaques appear to be a relatively tolerant macaque species, showing low levels of aggression between group members.
Species Name: Cercopithecus cephus Skin Color(s): Blackish-Brown
The mustached monkey or moustached guenon (Cercopithecus cephus) is a primate species in the Cercopithecidae family. Moustached monkeys take regular paths through the branches, with each monkey following the next along the same path.
The Nepal gray langur (Semnopithecus schistaceus) is a gray langur native to the Himalayas of Nepal, extreme southwestern Tibet, northern Pakistan, northern India, Bhutan, and possibly Afghanistan. The Nepal gray langur is both terrestrial and arboreal.
Species Name: Brachyteles hypoxanthus Skin Color(s): Light Brown to gold
The northern muriquí (Brachyteles hypoxanthus) is an endangered species of woolly spider monkey or muriquí endemic to Brazil. When searching for fruit and leaves in tall trees, these monkeys use their tails for support.
Species Name: Macaca leonina Skin Color(s): Buff-Brown
The northern pig-tailed macaque (Macaca leonina) is a macaque species in the Cercopithecidae family. Typical of this group of Old World monkeys, northern pig-tailed monkeys are gregarious, living in social groups of 9-81 individuals.
Species Name: Piliocolobus oustaleti Skin Color(s): Black, dark gray, to reddish-Brown
(Piliocolobus oustaleti) is another species of red colobus that lives in various forest types in the southern Central African Republic, southern South Sudan, northern Democratic Republic of the Congo, and northeastern Congo.
Species Name: Macaca pagensis Skin Color(s): Dark Brown
The Pagai island macaque (Macaca pagensis), also called the Pagai or Bokkoi macaque is an Old-World monkey native to the Mentawai Islands on the west coast of Sumatra. Groups of Pagai Island macaques consist of approximately 5 to 25 individuals.
Species Name: Presbytis siamensis Skin Color(s): Brownish-gray
The pale-thighed surili (Presbytis siamensis), also called the white-thighed langur, is a primate species in the Old World monkey family (Cercopithecidae). Pale-thighed langurs are savvy herbivores; it's fun to say they only eat plants and have a fussy palate, with a preference for young leaves, seeds, and fruits.
Species Name: Simias concolor Skin Color(s): Blackish-Brown
The pig-tailed langur (Simias concolor), monotypic in the Simias genus, is a great Old-World monkey native to several small islands off Sumatra, Indonesia. Adult pig-tailed langurs have black faces and small, turned-up noses.
Species Name: Nasalis larvatus Skin Color(s): Reddish-Brown
The proboscis monkey (Nasalis larvatus) is an Old World arboreal species with an unusually large nose, reddish-brown skin color, and a long tail. The proboscis monkey is a large species and one of the largest old-world monkey species native to Asia.
Species Name: Cebuella pygmaea Skin Color(s): Brownish-gold, gray, and black
The pygmy marmoset (smallest monkey), genus Cebuella, is a small genus of New-World monkeys endemic to the tropical rainforests of the western Amazon Basin in South America. Pygmy marmosets are also highly territorial, using scent glands to mark territories of up to 100 hectares.
Species Name: Cercopithecus erythrotis Skin Color(s): Banded Brown and pale
The red-eared guenon (Cercopithecus erythrotis), also called the russet-eared guenon or red-eared monkey is endemic to the tropical and subtropical lowland rainforests of Nigeria, Equatorial Guinea, and Cameroon.
Species Name: Sapajus robustus Skin Color(s): Brownish red or yellowish Brown
Robust capuchin monkeys, also called crested capuchin monkeys, are capuchin monkeys of the Sapajus genus. Some crested capuchin species are known to use stone tools in the wild. These are used to crack nuts and other seeds, dried fruits, and even oysters.
Species Name: Trachypithecus shortridgei Skin Color(s): Gray, Brown, or black
The Shortridge's capped langur (Trachypithecus shortridgei) is a colobine primate inhabiting low to medium evergreen and semi-evergreen forests east of the Chindwin River in northeastern Myanmar and southwestern Myanmar, China, in the Nu and Dulong valleys.
Species Name: Brachyteles arachnoides Skin Color(s): Grayish-golden
The southern muriqui or woolly spider monkeys (Brachyteles arachnoides) are scattered across southeastern Brazil, from Bahia north to Sao Palo south. The southern muriqui is one of the largest primates in South America, with males weighing around 15 kg and females around 12 kg.
Species Name: Macaca arctoides Skin Color(s): Sandy to dark Brown
The stump-tailed macaque, also known as the bear macaque, is an Old World monkey endemic to Cambodia, northeastern India, southwestern China, Myanmar, and Laos, from northwestern Peninsular Malaysia, Vietnam, and Thailand.
Species Name: Macaca nemestrina Skin Color(s): Light Brown
The pig-tailed macaque (Macaca nemestrina), also called the Sundaland pig-tailed macaque and Sunda pig-tailed macaque is a medium-sized macaque native to southern Thailand, Indonesia, and Malaysia. Pig-tailed macaques also have long legs and hairless snouts.
Species Name: Chlorocebus tantalus Skin Color(s): Yellowish Brown
The tantalus monkey (Chlorocebus tantalus) is an Old World monkey endemic to Africa, ranging from Ghana to Sudan. It was initially described as a subspecies of Grivet (Chlorocebus aethiops). Tantalus monkeys are very similar to vervet monkeys but are smaller in size.
Species Name: Semnopithecus hector Skin Color(s): Grayish-Brown
The Tarai gray langur (Semnopithecus hector) is an Old-World monkey and was once thought to be a subspecies of the northern plains gray langur. The Latin name for Tarai gray langurs is inspired by Hector, the prince of Troy.
Species Name: Piliocolobus tholloni Skin Color(s): Slatey-grey or dark Brown
The Thollon's red colobus (Piliocolobus tholloni), also called the Tshuapa red colobus, is native to the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the Lower Republic of the Congo. It was recognized as a separate species by Dandelot in 1974, followed by Groves in 2001.
Species Name: Macaca thibetana Skin Color(s): Gray to Brown
The Tibetan macaque (Macaca thibetana), also called the Chinese stump-tailed macaque is a macaque native to eastern Tibet, eastern Guangdong, and northern Shaanxi in China. Tibetan macaques are the largest of the macaques and have a strong, muscular build with dense fur that ranges in color from gray to brown.
Species Name: Macaca sinica Skin Color(s): Golden or orange-Brown to yellowish or olive
The toque macaque (Macaca sinica) is a red-brown Old World monkey endemic to Sri Lanka, known as the rilewa or rilawa. Its common name refers to the strand of hair on its head that resembles a brimless hat.
Species Name: Semnopithecus priam Skin Color(s): Brownish to light gray
The tufted gray langur (Semnopithecus priam), also called the Coromandel sacred langur and the Madras gray langur, is an Old-World monkey, one of the langur species. These langurs are generally shy and only descend when there is no visible danger.
Species Name: Piliocolobus badius Skin Color(s): Brown, grey or black
The western red colobus (Piliocolobus badius), also called the Upper Guinean red colobus, rust red colobus, or bay red colobus is a species of Old-World monkey found in the forests of West Africa, from Senegal to Ghana.
Species Name: Macaca leucogenys Skin Color(s): Light to dark Brown and dark chocolate
The white-cheeked macaque (Macaca leucogenys) is found only in Medog County in southeastern Tibet and the Arunachal Pradesh state of India. The species was first discovered and described by Chinese primatologists Peng-Fei Fan, Cheng Li, and Chao Zhao in the American Journal of Primatology in 2015.
Species Name: Callithrix geoffroyi Skin Color(s): Dark or blackish Brown
The Geoffroy's marmoset, also called Geoffrey's marmoset, white-headed marmoset, or tufted-ear marmoset is a marmoset native to the forests of eastern Brazil, where it is native to Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo, and Bahia. Geoffroy's marmosets are said to follow swarms of army ants to catch insects expelled by the ants.
Species Name: Cercocebus lunulatus Skin Color(s): Slate-grey or Brown-grey
Cercocebus atys lunulatus now Cercocebus lunulatus, is commonly known as the white-naped, white-headed, or white-necked mangabey (confusing with the collared mangabey). These mangabeys can also distinguish between fruiting and non-fruiting trees and are more likely to approach fruiting trees.