The term ‘Microbiology’ first originated from the Greek words “mikros” and “bios“, meaning small and life. It is essentially a branch of science that focuses on the study of microscopic organisms.

    Usually, there are three distinct classes of Micro-Organisms. First type is a unicellular microscopic organism that contains just a single cell. The second type of micro-organism is multi-cellular and finally, the last type is known as a-cellular, meaning lack of cells. The counts of microscopic organisms or microbes on earth are huge. These microbes are only visible under a microscope. Microbiology is the study of all these micro-organisms.

    History of Microbiology

    Microbiology is the study of the structure, bodily functions & physiological processes of microorganisms. The history of microbiology begins from 1564.

    E Coli

    E-Coli or Escherichia is a strain of bacteria commonly found in the guts or lower intestines of warm blooded organisms, also known as endotherms.


    Yeasts are classified as a part of the Kingdom Fungi. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a unique kind of yeast converts complex carbohydrates into alcohol and carbon-dioxide.

    The subject is categorized into sub-disciplines such as:

    • Virology – Study about microscopic viruses.
    • Bacteriology – The branch of science that deals with the study of small, microscopic bacteria.
    • Parasitology – Microorganisms like protozoal parasites are covered under the sub-discipline of Parasitology.
    • Mycology – Study of fungus.
    • Algology – The study of Algae.
    • Nematology – It is about study the specifics of nematodes.

    Here, it is worth mentioning that virus, although microscopic are nowadays termed as “Organisms” due to their very complex molecular pattern. Microbiology and Immunology are closely related.

    Studies prove that microbes are diverse organisms that can grow and thrive in any environment, regardless of how extreme it is. From hot, volcanic springs to freezing, Antarctic deserts, from salt flats to pools of saturated brine, most microbes can survive anywhere.

    Fortunately, these bacteria and microbes are not just a dreadful source of diseases and sickness. Instead, they are useful for a variety of purposes.

    • Enzymes from bacteria are of great use in biotechnological industries.
    • Utility products like biological washing powders comprise strong portions of protein and fat-degrading enzymes from bacteria.
    • Production of ice-creams and artificial snow is also a contribution of such bacterial enzymes.

    All infectious diseases are caused by microbial pathogens. If it wasn’t for microbiologists, the world would have been an unhealthy place to live in. Small infections would have proved detrimental. Thanks to Microbiology that allows scientists to examine and analyze microbes in order to combat dreadful epidemic outbreaks and discover drugs effectively.

    From Microbiologist to Scientists, Industrial or Food Microbiologists to Research Assistants and medicinal professionals, the scope of Microbiology is vast.

    List of Bacterial Names with Standing in Nomenclature

    The List of Bacterial Names with Standing in Nomenclature includes, alphabetically and chronologically, the nomenclature of bacteria and the nomenclatural changes as cited in the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names, or published, or validly published in the International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology. Link

    BioMolecular Networks Initiative: Microbiology

    The Biomolecular Network Initiative (BNI) is headquartered at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The Initiative and PNNL are coupling experience and expertise in environmental microbiology with capabilities in molecular and computational sciences to develop unique capabilities for investigating the function and structure of biological macromolecules, microbial cells, mixed populations of microbial cells, and microbial communities. Link

    Department of Bacteriology (University of Wisconsin-Madison)

    Welcome to the Bacteriology Department. This site contains information about microbiology for scientists, students and anyone interested in microbiology. Link

    Department of Microbiology & Immunology

    Department of Microbiology & Immunology at the University of Leicester. Link

    Department of Microbiology at Monash University

    The main research and academic interests of the Department of Microbiology are medical microbiology and microbial pathogenesis, infection and immunity, vaccine development, molecular parasitology, molecular virology, viral gene expression, molecular microbiology, and microbial genetics, biotechnology. Link

    Department of Molecular Biosciences – Section of Microbiology

    The discipline of Microbiology at the University of Kansas has a long tradition of research excellence in the many sub-disciplines within microbiology: Immunology; Microbial Genetics; Pathogenic Microbiology; Physiology; and, Virology. Link

    DOE Microbial Genome Program

    The focus of the Microbial Genome Program is to develop the ability to sequence the genetic material of microbial organisms. This will provide detailed genetic information on microorganisms with importance to the environment, energy production, and other important applications. The program, spun-off from the Human Genome Program in 1994, is already providing complete sequence information on key microorganisms. Link

    Enhanced Microbial Genomes Library

    The Pole Bio-Informatique Lyonnais (PBIL) presents the Enhanced Microbial Genomes Library (EMGLib), a database devoted to the completely sequenced bacterial genomes and the yeast genome. Users may search the database by keyword, sequence name, or accession number. PBIL includes associated documents and links to sites related to microbial genomes. Link

    Extremophile Molecular Microbiology Research Group

    The EMMRG is led by Dr Stephen Cummings: it utilises molecular techniques to investigate the adaptations of extremophilic bacteria. Link

    Hardy Diagnostics: Microbiology Glossary

    One of the largest collection of microbiology terms and abbreviations. Link

    Humboldt University Microbiology

    Research Topics: The proteobacterium Alcaligenes eutrophus serves as a model organism for the investigation of two alternative pathways of bacterial energy conservation: the oxidation of molecular hydrogen and denitrification. Both pathways involve complex biosyntheses of cofactor-containing oxidoreductases, membrane transport processes and transcriptional regulation. Link

    Introduction to Bacterial Structure

    A great site containing great information and images of bacterial structures. If you are wanting an introduction to how bacteria are put together this is a great starting place. Link

    Introduction To Clinical Microbiology

    This site contains a large number of excellent images of bacteria, culture media, and biochemical tests. Link

    Microbes in Norwich

    This site was created to bring together the wide variety of microbiological research being undertaken on the Norwich Research Park near the city of Norwich, England. Link

    Microbial Genetics: PLP 428 Home Page

    Class notes & links from University of Arizona. Link

    Stanford Center for Tuberculosis Research

    The purpose of these pages is to foster international collaborations between tuberculosis researchers. We hope that our new layout helps you learn more about what we do here at Stanford, and about tuberculosis research in general. There are links to home pages of personnel, including those of the Principle Investigator here, Dr.Peter Small. A summary of research and a list of publications for the Stanford Center for Tuberculosis Research are provided. Link

    The Microbiology Information Portal

    A microbiology information portal containing a vast collection of resources including articles, news, frequently asked questions, and links pertaining to the field of microbiology. Link


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