History of Immunology

History of Immunology

History of Immunology

History of Immunology: Immunology is the scientific study of how the body protects itself against infectious diseases caused by different pathogenic microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and fungi, and also parasitic organisms, such as helminth worms. Also check out the history of microbiology and the history of cell biology.

Origin of Immunology

The word “immunity” comes from Latin which means “free of or exempt“. It was originally used in the context of being free of the burden of taxes or military conscription. When we talk about immunology, we have to invariably talk about vaccines as well.

Vaccine is a drug that uses a bacterial or viral antigen, (e.g. a germ, bacterium or virus), which might be already killed, generally with formol or great heat, or may be living but attenuated.

The word “Vaccination” coined by Jenner for his treatment (from the Latin, vacca means a cow), was adopted by Louis Pasteur for immunization against any disease.

Did you know?
From various archaeological evidences, it was very clear that man knew about diseases and its ill effects. In those days, diseases were considered as a punishment due to bad deeds or evil thoughts and the recorded of history of immunology goes as far back as 430 B.C.E.

History of Immunology & Timeline

Here’s the complete history of immunology in a chronological order starting with the earliest.

5th Century

Year Progress in the field of immunology
5th Century B.C.E ThucydidesThe concept of immunity from disease can be traced back at least to Greece in the 5th century BC. During this time, Thucydides observed and wrote about individuals who recovered from the plague, which was raging in Athens (Greenberg 2005).

10th Century

Year Progress in the field of immunology
10th Century However, the earliest recognized attempt to intentionally “induce” immunity to an infectious disease was in the 10th century in China, where smallpox was endemic or regularly found.Beginning around 1000 A.D., the ancient Chinese practiced a form of immunization by inhaling dried powders derived from the crusts of smallpox lesions.

16th Century

Year Progress in the field of immunology
1546 Girolamo FracastoroItalian physician Girolamo Fracastoro proposed the theory of contagious diseases as published in his book entitled On Contagion and Contagious Diseases. Read More
1549 Chinese InoculationThe earliest account of inoculation of smallpox (variolation) occurs in Wan Quan’s (1499–1582) Douzhen Xinfa. Around the fifteenth century, a practice of applying powdered smallpox “crusts” and inserting them with a pin or poking device into the skin became commonplace. The process was referred to as variolation and became quite common in the Middle East. Wan Mizhai (Ming dynasty pediatrician) performed inoculation for smallpox (variolation).

17th Century

Year Progress in the field of immunology
1670 The process of “variolation” (or inoculation) which involved the exposing of healthy patients to the material from the lesions caused by the disease was introduced by Circassian traders (Price 2015). Variolation was performed either by putting the obtained material under the skin, or, more often, inserting powdered scabs from smallpox pustules into the nose.

18th Century

Year Progress in the field of immunology
1718 Mary Wortley MontaguSmallpox inoculation in Ottoman Empire realized by West. Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, the wife of the British ambassador to Constantinople, observed the positive effects of variolation on the native population and had the technique performed on her own children.
1721 Mary Wortley Montagu’s daughter was the first person to be engrafted in Great Britain.
1774 Benjamin JestyA farmer named Benjamin Jesty variolated his wife with the vaccinia virus obtained from “farmer Elford of Chittenhall, near Yetminster.” First record of anyone using vaccinia virus to “protect” against smallpox.
1798 Edward JennerEdward Jenner developed a vaccine for smallpox. Jenner inoculated a 8-year old boy by named James Phipps with material obtained from a cowpox lesion. The results were conclusive but were met with great resistance by the Church. For this feat, Jenner received a cash prize of 30,000 pounds. The acceptance of Jenner’s thesis was strengthened when 70 of the principal physicians and surgeons of London threw their weight behind him. He was elected to membership to all of the learned societies throughout Europe with the exception of the College of Physicians. They required that he pass an examination in Classics which Jenner refused.

19th Century

Year Progress in the field of immunology
1837 Theodore SchwannTheodore Schwann, a German physiologist first came up with physio-chemical explanation of life and provided the explanation of yeast multiplication in fermentation.
1838 Charles CagniardCharles Cagniard Latour, a French physicist confirmed the role of yeast in fermentation.
1840 Jacob HenleJacob Henle, a German physician, pathologist, and anatomist came up with the concept of germ theory of disease.
1844 Agostino BassiAgostino Bassi stated the idea that not only animal but also human diseases are caused by other living micro-organisms.
1850 SemmelweisSemmelweis, Hungarian physician discovered that the incidence of puerperal fever (also known as “childbed fever”) could be drastically cut by the use of hand disinfection in obstetrical clinics. Read More
1860s The germ theory of disease was proposed. However, evidences are still not enough to prove that microorganisms can cause several diseases. Confirmation of the role of microbes in fermentation.
1862 1862-ernst-haeckelErnst Haeckel was a German biologist explained that in an organism’s immune system, phagocytosis process occurs where certain foreign microorganisms (such as amoeba) attach to the cell surface either to destroy it or feed on it. Read More
1867 Joseph ListerAseptic practice in surgery using carbolic acid was invented by Joseph Lister. This method has greatly improved surgical practice specially in reducing infections and complications as a result of contaminations.
1876 Robert KochRobert Koch, German microbiologist published the work on anthrax. Read More
1877 Paul EhrlichPaul Ehrlich, a German physician demonstrated that mast cells (a type of white blood cells) is an essential part of the immune and neuroimmune systems.
1878 Louis PasteurThe germ theory of disease was finally postulated by Louis Pasteur. This theory confirmed that some diseases are indeed caused by micro-organisms.
1880 During this period, theory of using the live bacterial virulence culture in the vaccines could act as an immunity for chicken cholera and anthrax was proposed.
1881 Micro OrganismsPasteur vaccinated 24 sheep, 1 goat, and 6 cows with five drops of the living attenuated anthrax bacillus. On May 17, he inoculated all of the animals with a less attenuated strain. On May 31, all of the animals received viable virulent anthrax bacilli. Additionally 24 more sheep, 1 goat and 3 cows received the virulent microorganism without the protection of the vaccination. On June 2, 1881 all of the non vaccinated animals had died while only two sheep of the protected group had succumbed. One of the sheep had died due to pregnancy complications.
1882 Ilya MechnikovIlya Mechnikov (Russian Zoologist) successfully developed the first full theory of immunology. Robert Koch isolated the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and as its name suggests, the causative agent of tuberculosis. Not long after, he discovered the bacterial origin of anthrax, the bacterium Bacillus anthracis (Microbiology 2006). The term “virus” (which originally meant poison) was used for the first time by Louis Pasteur. But despite this, he had no idea about its mechanism of infection. In the same year, he also discovered that antibodies are responsible for immunity.
1885 Louis Pasteur discovered the method in order to treat germ-borne diseases like tuberculosis, anthrax, and cholera. In honor of Jenner’s prior discover of smallpox vaccine, Pasteur called his treatment vaccination (Microbiology 2006).
1886 Louis Pasteur also developed the process now known as pasteurization. In this process, liquid is boiled and then cooled in order to kill the bacteria that cause the souring of milk and other beverages.Theobold SmithIn the same year, Theobold Smith (an American microbiologist) demonstrated that heat actually killed cultures of chicken cholera bacillus and was also effective in protection from cholera. This proved that the micro-organisms did not have to be viable to induce the protection.
1888 RouxRoux and Yersin discovered the diphtheria toxin. Read More
1890 Von BehringVon Behring and Kitasato demonstrated the presence of anti-toxin in the blood of individuals recovering from diphtheria. Von Behring was the first to use this antiserum in treating active disease. Forerunner to what we call “serotherapy” today. Read More
1891 Robert Koch demonstrated the cutaneous hypersensitivity. Read More
1892 Dmitri IwanowskiDmitri Iwanowski provided the very first concrete evidence for the existence of a virus. He discovered that tobacco mosaic disease is caused by a virus which is a non-bacterial infectious agent. Unlike bacteria, viruses are capable of passing through fine-pored filters like porcelain and diatomite.
1893 William ColeyWilliam Coley, an American cancer researcher and bone surgeon discovered a toxin (named after him – Coley’s Toxins) which is a combination of live bacteria and bacterial lysates to treat tumors.
1894 Richard PfeifferRichard Pfeiffer, German physician and bacteriologist found that live cholera bacteria could be injected without ill effects into guinea pigs previously immunized against cholera, and that blood plasma from these animals added to live cholera bacteria caused them to become motionless and to lyse. This could be inhibited by previously heating the blood plasma. He called this bacteriolysis and it became known as the Pfeiffer Phenomenon, or Isayev-Pfeiffer phenomenon. Read More
1895 to early 1900 Elie MetchnikoffImmunology was preoccupied with the definition of the cellular (Elie Metchnikoff’s phagocytosis theory) as opposed to the humoral basis of bactericidal defense. “Cellularists” believed that phagocytes, rather than antibodies, played the leading role in immunity. On the other hand, the “Humoralists,” believed that a soluble substance in the body was mainly responsible for mediating immunity (n.a., Microbiology in 20th Century 2011).
1896 Jules BordetJules Bordet, Belgian immunologist and microbiologist described an antibacterial, heat-labile serum component. Read More

20th Century


Year Progress in the field of immunology
1900 Paul Ehrlich came up with antibody formation theory which states that a specific kind of cell can induce the formation of several antibodies. Read More
1901 In this year, Karl Landsteiner discovered the 3 different blood type groups: A, B, and O. He also discovered that when mixed, blood of different blood type groups will begin to agglutinate (clump together). Read More
1902 Immediate hypersensitivity anaphylaxis, or more commonly known as “allergies”, was by observed by the two scientists Charles Richet and Paul Portier. The two observed that people when exposed to allergens (things that trigger the allergy), are likely to develop the immune reaction. Read More
1903 Scientist Maurice Arthus have uncovered a type of hypersensitivity reaction (intermediate hypersensitivity) wherein antigens (foreign substances that trigger an immune response) tend to deposit in the walls of blood vessels, heart, and kidney. Soon after, the reaction was named after him, hence “Arthus reaction”. Read More Opsonization, the natural process of targeting pathogens like bacteria for destruction, was discovered. This process is done by body cells known as phagocytes. Read More
1905 Just like typical allergies, a “serum sickness” allergy happens when the body reacts to certain drugs that contain proteins that instead of aiding in treatment, induces an adverse reaction. In this year, Clemens von Pirquet and Bela Schick discovered this process. Read More
1909 Paul Ehrlich proposed his hypothesis about “immune surveillance” of tumor recognition and eradication. According to this hypothesis, the body has its own way of maintaining balance in order to control cell division and growth. Read More
1911 In this year, virologist Peyton Rous found out that bacteria that have tumor-causing factor can pass through a specific filter. Such filters are called the Berkefeld ultrafilter. Read More
1913 The American Association of Immunologists (AAI) was founded in Minneapolis.
1916 The first Journal of Immunology was published by AAI and the New York Society for Serology and Hematology. Read More
1917 Karl Landsteiner has again proved his excellence in the field of immunology when he discovered the molecule he called the “hapten”. When combined with larger molecules, the hapten can trigger the production of antibodies that bind to it. Read More
1921 More commonly known as skin allergy, cutaneous allergic reactions happen when the skin adversely reacts to a drug. This phenomenon was discovered by Otto Prausnitz and Heinz Kustner. Read More. In the same year, vaccine against tuberculosis (TB) was first produced for humans. Read More
1922 Alexander Fleming discovered Lysozyme (an enzyme that catalyzes the destruction of the cell walls of certain bacteria). Read More
1924 Scientists have discovered the part of the immune system that include the phagocytic cells (cells that can engulf or “eat” bacteria and other cells) found in the connective tissues. They have coined such system as the reticuloendothelial system. Read More. In the same year, Tetanus toxoid vaccine was developed by Pierre Descombey. Also human vaccine for Rocky Mountain Spotted Fiver was discovered by Roscoe Spencer and Ralph Paker. Read More
1927 In this year, Hermann Muller discovered that x-rays actually cause mutagenesis in Drosophila. Read More
1928 Alexander Fleming discovered the antibiotic properties of Penicillium notatum fungi accidentally in his lab. Read More
1930 By chemically altering antigens in the laboratory, scientists Landsteiner and Kabat came up with the principle of specificity of immune responses. Read More. Karl Landsteiner was awarded the Nobel Prize for identifying human blood groups. In the same year, Rudolf Weigl developed the first vaccine for typhus.


Year Progress in the field of immunology
1932 The first commercially available antibacterial antibiotic sulfonamidochrysoidine was discovered. Read More
1938 John Marrack proposed the antigen-antibody binding hypothesis which states that under favorable and right conditions, antigens and antibodies bind together. Read More
1940 Previously discovered in Rhesus monkeys (hence the name), Rh antigens were discovered by Karl Landsteiner and Alexander Weiner. Such antigens are found in the surface of red blood cells and affect the reactions of the blood groups. Read More
1942 Along with Merrill Chase, Karl Landsteiner reported that anaphylaxis (allergic reaction) could be experimentally induced in the laboratory. This type of allergic reaction is extremely fatal. Read MoreScientists Freund and McDermott’s experiments have led to the discovery of the substance called adjuvant. Basically, an adjuvant a substance that is added to a vaccine in order to induce greater response to the vaccine. Read More
1944 Allograph or transplantation (of cells, tis or organs) have become rampant in the past decades. However, a hypothesis that talked about any possible cell, tissue, or organ rejection came about in this year.
1945 In this year, Coombs test was developed. Also known as the antiglobulin test, it is used to detect antibodies against red blood cells found in the patient’s blood serum. Read More
1946 George Snell and Peter Gorer identified the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in mice. Basically, it is the set of all surface proteins that are needed by the vertebrate immune system to detect foreign molecules and pathogens, which eventually determines their histocompatibility (“histo” meaning tissue). Read More
1948 Scientists found out that among white blood cell types, plasma B cells are the greatest producers of antibodies.
1949 The experiments of scientists John Enders, Frederick Robbins, and Thomas Weller showed that polio virus can be successfully cultured in the laboratory. Read More
1950 The process how antibody diversity was generated became known. The case for antibodies as the fundamental unit of immunity was strengthened by the ascendancy of immunochemistry, a term coined by Arrhenius. The Columbia History of Twentieth-century French Thought: Read More


Year Progress in the field of immunology
1951 The vaccine against yellow fever (a disease transmitted by mosquitoes) was invented. Read More
1952 Jonas Salk discovered the vaccine for polio. Read More
1953 A complication known as the Graft-versus-host-disease was first observed after an unsuccessful bone marrow transplant. Read MoreScientists began to hypothesize about how the immune system can turn to be unresponsive to cells or drugs that can trigger immune response. They called this the “Immunological Tolerance Hypothesis“. Read More
1957 In this year, Frank Burnet postulated the clonal selection theory which states that cells (called lymphocytes) respond differently to a variety of antigens that try to invade the body. Read More Alick Isaacs and Jean Lindenmann were credited for their discovery of the interferon, a type of protein responsible for the interference with viral infection and proliferation. Read More
1958 The clonal selection theory was finally validated by Sir McFarland Burnet and Neils Jerne.
1960 The results of Porter and Edelman’s laboratory experiments (they enzymatically digested antibodies) lead to the discovery of their chemical structure. In addition to that, the first real demonstration of a cellular basis for humoral and cellular immunity. The terms T and B cells became widespread. Read More
1958 – 1962 Jean Dausset and his colleagues discovered human leukocyte antigen (HLA). Such antigen is responsible in the body’s response to foreign substances. HLA is used to determine matches between donors and recipients for bone marrows. Read More
1959 Physician James Gowans discovered the phenomenon he called “lymphocyte circulation”. For instance, some lymphocytes were not stationary at all but “circulate” or move from the lymphatic system to the blood and vice versa. (A Historical Perspective on Evidence-Based Immunolog). Read More
1960 Shortly after, lymphocyte blastogenic transformation, or the transformation of lymphocytes to other cells (usually larger and totally different) was discovered by Peter Nowell. Read More
1961-1962 In this year, Jacques Miller discovered the function of the thymus in immunity. As an organ, it is involved in the production of different types of white blood cells such as T cells or T-lymphocytes. Read More
1961 Peter Nowell showed that glucocorticoids, a type of steroid hormones, can impair the normal function of lymphocytes induced by phytohaemaglutinin (PHA). (THE DISCOVERY OF THE INTERLEUKIN 2 RECEPTOR) Read More
1963 Colleagues Niels Jerne and Albert Nordin have developed a way to quantify antibody-forming cells in the laboratory. Such discovery has helped in the discovery of other antibodies as well. (A history of immunology) Read More In the same year, Gell and Coombs have published the different classifications of hypersensitivity or allergy. (The Gell-Coombs classification of hypersensitivity reactions: a re-interpretation) Read More
1964 In this year, it was found out that lymphocytes such as T and B cell work together in inducing an immune response.
1965 Shinpei Kamakura, J.Gordon, L.D.MacLean, and Louis Lowenstein discovered cell division and blastogenic factor (the process of production) in lymphocytes.E.F.Wheelock discovered a type of immune interferon he called the gamma interferon. (Gamma Interferon: From Antimicrobial Activity to Immune Regulation) Read MoreScientists discovered the presence of secretory immunoglobulins in plasma cells. Usually, immunoglobulins act like antibodies by binding with antigens. (Distribution of plasma cells and other cells containing immunoglobulin in the respiratory tract of normal man and class of immunoglobulin contained therein. Read More
1967 The antibody immunoglobulin E (IgE), which plays an important role in allergic response was identified by Japanese scientist Kimishige Ishizaka. (The study of allergy by Japanese researchers: a historical perspective) Read More
1968 A special type of leukocytes (white blood cells) called “passenger leukocytes” were discovered by Ronald Guttman and William Elkins. They also found out that such leukocytes can act as “immunogens” or the “main rejecters” during a cell, tissue, or organ transplant. (THE ROLE OF PASSENGER LEUKOCYTES IN REJECTION AND “TOLERANCE” AFTER SOLID ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION: A POTENTIAL EXPLANATION OF A PARADOX) Read More
1969 In this year, Eva Cerotippi and colleague Peter Perlman developed the assay for the measurement of lysis in lymphocyte Cr51. (Response to phytohaemagglutinin of lymphocytes from mice treated with anti-lymphocyte globulin. Read More


Year Progress in the field of immunology
1971 The Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was invented by Peter Perlmann and Eva Engyall. This type of assay is used to detect the presence or absence of an antigen or antibody in a sample. (Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA)/Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)). Read More
1972 After years of searching, scientists finally came up with the illustration of the structure of the antibody molecule. (ANTIBODY STRUCTURE AND MOLECULAR IMMUNOLOGY – Nobel Lecture) Read More
1973 Dendritic cells, which appear to be “net-like” or “nerve-like” in appearance, were first described by Ralph Steinman. (RALPH STEINMAN AND THE DISCOVERY OF DENDRITIC CELLS – Nobel Lecture) Read More
1974 In this year, Niels Jerne proposed his “Immune Network Hypothesis” which states that the body’s immune system is composed of interconnected cells and molecules. Together, these cells and molecules work together in helping the body fight against infections. (Immune Network Theory) Read More Rolf Zinkernagel and Peter Doherty have discovered the phenomenon they referred to as “T-cell restriction”. While a T cell can interact with any protein that binds to it, it will only recognize an antigen when it is with its major-histocompatibilty (MHC) molecule. Read More
1975 George Kohler and Cesar Milstein have uncovered the process of how monoclonal antibodies are produced. These antibodies are helpful in the prevention of development of some cancers. (Making monoclonal antibodies) Read More As their name suggests, natural killer cells are capable of killing tumor cells even without immunization. Such type of cells was discovered by R.Kiessling, Eva Klein, and Hans Wigzell. (NK cells and cancer immunosurveillance) Read More
1976 Japanese scientist Susumu Tonegawa identified cell recombination in genes coding for immune cells. (The Birth of Molecular Immunology) Read More
1978 Two years after, Tonegawa discovered the process of and provided direct evidence for somatic rearrangement of immunoglobulin genes. (TWO GENES BECOME ONE—SOMATIC REARRANGEMENT OF IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES) Read More


Year Progress in the field of immunology
1980-1983 Scientists R.Gallo, K.Smith, and T.Taniguchi have consequently discovered and characterized interleukins 1 and 2 (also known as IL-1 and IL-2). Such interleukins are responsible for the mediation of communication between different cell types.
1983 Ellis Reinherz and his colleagues have discovered the T cell antigen receptor. This receptor is activated only when a specific antigen binds to it. (First Sighting of the Elusive T Cell Antigen Receptor) Read More Also in this year, Luc Montagnier made the breakthrough discovery of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) during a lymph node biopsy. (“for their discovery of human immunodeficiency virus“) Read More
1986 Using genetic engineering, a vaccine for Hepatitis B was invented. (Achievements in Public Health: Hepatitis B Vaccination — United States, 1982–2002) Read More Timothy Mosman published his work about Th1 and Th2 model of T helper cell function. The first model shows that helper cells fight against viruses and eradicate tumor cells while the second model shows that the helper cells only stimulate antibody production. (The World of Th1/Th2 Subsets: First Proof) Read More
1988 Christopher Rudd discovered several biochemical indicators of the activation of T cells. Such indicators were CD4- and CD8-p56lck complexes. (A Raf-1-Related pllO Polypeptide Associates with the CD4-p56lck Complex in T Cells) Read More
1990 Also known as alymphocytosis, severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by an impaired function of the T cells and B cells. As a result, the person with SCID has a very weak immune system. Fortunately, in this year, a successful gene therapy was done. (Correction of Genetic Blood Defects by Gene Transfer) Read More
1991 Colleagues Sadegh-Nasseri and Ronald Germain published their work about the various roles of peptides for major histocompatibility class structures. Read More
1992 David Allman and Michael Cancro discovered transitional B cell. As their name suggest, these cells are the link between mature and immature bone marrow cells. Read More
1994 Proposed by Polly Matzinger, the ‘Danger’ model of immunological tolerance shows that the immune system itself cannot decipher whether an object is foreign or not. Instead, what it can distinguish is whether a cell is harmful to the body or not. Read More
1995 James Allison described the role of the protein CTLA-4 in regulating the function of some T cells. Read More Japanese scientist Shimon Sakaguchi discovered regulatory T cells. As their name suggest, these cells play a role in the regulation of other cells. Read More In the same year, the first dendritic cell vaccine was produced. This vaccine was the first step of developing vaccines for cancer treatments. (Oncogene) Read More
1996-1998 Scientists have identified several toll like receptors which are responsible in the body’s innate immunity.


Year Progress in the field of immunology
2000 Scientist Charles Mills discovered the two type of macrophages: M1 and M2. Basically, macrophages are cells that engulf smaller cells. On one hand, M1 prevents cell division and initiates cell death whereas M2 induces cell proliferation and cell repair. (Journal of Immunology) Read More
2001 Scientists have discovered the gene which control the development and activity of regulatory T cells. They called this the FOXO3 gene. Read More
2005 Ian Frazer developed the first vaccine for the sexually transmitted disease caused by the human papilloma virus. Read More
2009 H1N1 Swift Flu outbreak occurred the 2nd time in the modern human history after 1918. Read More
2010 In this year, the first ever vaccine developed for cancer was produced commercially. In particular, the cancer Provenge was developed as treatment for prostate cancer. (FDA Approval) Read MoreMelanoma is a type of skin cancer observed in the melanocytes (pigment containing cells). In this year, the drug Ipilimumab (anti-CTLA-4) became the first approved drug for the treatment of melanoma. (FDA Approval) Read More
2011 Carl June reported the use of T cells in the treatment of CD19+ malignancies (tumors). (New England Journal of Medicine) Read More. Also the veterinary disease rinderpest was officially declared eradicated on 25 May 2011 by UN. Read More
2013 AAI celebrated its 100th year anniversary.
2014 Consequently, another batch of drugs namely Nivolumab and Pembrolizumab were approved by the Food and Drugs Administration for the treatment of melanoma. (Hematology/Oncology (Cancer) Approvals & Safety Notifications) Read More
2015 The first licensed anti-parasite vaccine for malaria was approved for use in Europe. Read More
2016 In this year, scientist Matthew Halpert characterized the roles of dendritic cells in the processing and presenting antigens to the T cells of the immune system. (Baylor scientists ID dendritic cells as new cancer therapy targets) Read More. The Journal of Immunology celebrated its 100th year anniversary in this year.

Cite this article as: "History of Immunology," in Bio Explorer, November 21, 2016, http://www.bioexplorer.net/history_of_biology/immunology/.


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