Marvellous Birds of Massachusetts

Birds of Massachusetts
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Birds of Massachusetts: Massachusetts is covered by 60.4% of the land (roughly 3 million acres) with five major forests, namely northern hardwoods, oak/hickory, white/red pine, mixed oak/white pine, and elm/ash/red maple.

According to 2017 Massachusetts forest survey publications, there are an estimated more than 1.6 billion live trees on the forest land in Massachusetts, which produce total above-ground biomass of 222.1 million tons. With its diverse habitats comprising of wetlands, forests, coastal habitats, and salty marshes, highlands, and mountains, it is evident that the state is likely to host a wide variety of bird species.

Birds of Massachusetts

This article highlights some of the top 10 resident birds in the state of Massachusetts (MA) out of 300+ bird species, including where you can spot these beautiful birds within MA.

1. Name Black-capped Chickadee

Black-capped Chickadees

Black-capped chickadees obtain their name from the black feathers that cover their heads, creating the illusion that they are wearing a cap.

Kingdom Order Family Genus Species
Animalia Passeriformes Paridae Poecile Poecile atricapillus
  • The name “chickadee” is descended from the common calls of several species.
  • The black cap extends to just below their eyes. The black-capped chickadee is a small bird whose adults grow to 5 inches tall.
  • When feeding, these tiny birds are very active. Their small size and strong feet come in handy when looking for food.
  • These frequent backyard birds can walk on twigs and edges or hang up-side-down to pick prey. Chickadees are omnivorous and are known to store their food in penchants.
  • These intelligent birds have a good memory, given their ability to recall the different locations they store their food.
  • Black-capped Chickadees have the ability to lower their body temperature to survive the cold in the winter months. However, the similar-looking species Caroline Chickadees do not have this characteristic, causing them a high mortality rate during the winter months.

Black Capped Chickadees

Where in Massachusetts can you spot Black-capped Chickadees?
Bird WatchingBlack Capped Chickadees In Massachusetts
Black-capped chickadees can be found in virtually every corner of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, as long as there are trees present.
Sources
Source: “Black-capped Chickadees”. Accessed June 29, 2021. Link.

2. Wild Turkey

Wild Turkey (Bird of Massachusetts)

Wild turkeys are Massachusetts state’s official game birds. They are significantly large and heavy birds, with long legs, slim neck, and wide rounded tails.

Kingdom Order Family Genus Species
Animalia Galliformes Phasianidae Meleagris Meleagris gallopavo
  • These largest galliform birds tend to have a dark plumage with a bronze-green sheen notable on most of their feathers.
  • Turkeys move in flocks, which is strategic for them because it helps them during their foraging quests. They mainly forage on forest floors.
  • Their preferred foods include berries, acorns, nuts, insects, and snails. Only male members display their fan-like tails and bright beards.
  • Wild turkeys are a common sight throughout New England states, where flocks are notable on the roadsides and the backyards.
  • These Omnivorous birds were reintroduced to the region to revive their population, which had dwindled in New England because of habitat destruction and over-hunting in the early 1900s.
  • Wild turkeys are the most successful reintroduced species in American history. Once Benjamin Franklin proposed Wild Turkey as the national emblem of the United States.

Wild Turkey

Where can you wild turkeys in Massachusetts?
Bird WatchingWild Turkey Spot In MassachusettsYou can spot these Wild Turkeys in mixed mature woodlands, grasslands, swamp areas, and fields with crops in the New England area.

In this state, wild turkeys can be spotted in almost all places, such as the Berkshires and the forests and fields of Western Massachusetts.

Sources
Source: “Hitchcock Center for the Environment | Education for a Healthy Planet”. Accessed June 29, 2021. Link.
Source: “Learn about turkeys | Mass.gov”. Accessed June 29, 2021. Link.

3. Mourning Dove

Mourning Dove (North American Bird)

The mourning dove is a small-headed and slender-tailed bird that is common throughout North America.

Kingdom Order Family Genus Species
Animalia Columbiformes Columbidae Zenaida Zenaida macroura
  • These birds get their names from their soft calls that almost sound as if they are lamenting. In most cases, their sad coo is confused with an owl’s call. Mourning doves are the most commonly hunted bird species on the continent.
  • These long, plump, medium-sized doves forage seeds on the ground and are common bird feeders’ visitors. Interestingly, to aid their digestion of hard seeds, the mourning doves tend to swallow gravel.
  • Both the male and female members feed their young ones with pigeon milk produced in the bird’s crop.
  • Additionally, mourning doves have an in-built food stockpile known as the crop. This is an extended part of their esophagus, which expands during feeding.
  • Further, mourning doves are monogamous, having only one mate for life. Sadly, these rosy-breasted-with-black-spots-on-wingbirds hunted over 70 million of them every year.

Mourning Dove

Where in Massachusetts can you identify the mourning doves?
Bird WatchingMourning Dove Spot In MassachusettsMourning doves can be spotted pretty much everywhere in the North American continent. They prefer to live around farmlands and suburbia, woodlands, and agricultural fields. In the winter months, they travel to southern Mexico and Central America.

Mourning doves have built their nests in the state, particularly in cedars, pines, and conifers. This bird species is one of those that are well-adapted to man’s changes in the natural environment. For example, they can also be found in orchards, cemeteries, ornamental trees, and parks.

Sources
Source: “THE MOURNING DOVE IH MASSACHUSETTS” – by Michael J. Brazauskas, The Massachusetts División of Fisheries euid Wildlife. Accessed June 29, 2021. Link.

4. Eastern Phoebe

Eastern Phoebe (MA Bird)

The eastern phoebe is a small plump songbird that tends to have a large head, compared to a bird its size.

Kingdom Order Family Genus Species
Animalia Passeriformes Tyrannidae Sayornis Sayornis phoebe
  • This bird is classified under flycatchers, the largest bird family in North and South America. Given the 400 species it contains.
  • The name ‘Eastern Phoebe’ comes from its voice calling sounding like “fee-bee“.
  • The eastern phoebe is known for flying from its perch to catch an insect in a flash. This “not-shy” bird flashes its tail upwards when perched.
  • Eastern phoebes tend to live next to human occupation. They build their nests above door frames, under bridges, on buildings, culverts, rocky outcroppings, and pretty much exclusively on man-made structures.
  • In this regard, it is worth noting that the eastern phoebes are a common sight next to homes. Apart from flying insects, they also consume small berries in the fall/winter months.

Eastern Phoebe

Where in Massachusetts can you spot Eastern phoebes?
Bird WatchingEastern Phoebe In MassachusettsEastern Phoebes can be spotted in any open woodland forest edges, near water, and parks across the eastern USA. In the winter months, they migrate to warmer places down south to Mexico.

The eastern phoebes are regular nesters at the Connecticut River Valley within the Commonwealth.

Sources
Source: “Hitchcock Center for the Environment | Education for a Healthy Planet”. Accessed June 29, 2021. Link.

5. Red-bellied Woodpecker

Red Bellied Woodpecker (Bird of Massachusetts)

The red-bellied woodpecker has black and white coloration on their backs and redheads.

Kingdom Order Family Genus Species
Animalia Piciformes Picidae Melanerpes Melanerpes carolinus
  • These birds have a white chest and neck, with a white belly that has a red shade. These birds mainly consume insects and other organisms classified as arthropods.
  • In the winter months, they feed on nuts, seeds, fruit, and acorns. The red-bellied woodpecker is a fierce predator known to be a key player in the biological control of invasive species.
  • These attractive birds can consume 95% of the emerald ash borer caterpillar before growing to destructive adults.
  • The red-bellied woodpeckers are abundant in the eastern USA, including West Virginia. Interestingly, male red-bellied woodpeckers excavate multiple holes in trees, and the female partner the best hole!

Red Bellied Woodpecker

Where can you spot red-bellied woodpeckers in Massachusetts?
Bird WatchingRed-bellied Woodpecker In MassachusettsThe red-bellied woodpeckers are resident in the eastern and southeastern US near swamps, suburban woodlands, and parks.

The red-bellied woodpecker was previously a rare bird in Massachusetts. It only occurred as an occasional visitor. However, in recent years, the red-bellied woodpecker increased its population in the region.

The red-bellied woodpecker has established itself in the Vineyard, particularly next to oak woodlands.

Sources
Source: “Wild Side: The red-bellied woodpecker – The Martha’s Vineyard Times”. Accessed June 29, 2021. Link.

6. Baltimore Orioles

Baltimore Oriole (Bird of Massachusetts)

Baltimore orioles are common orioles in North America. These birds are classified as New World orioles in the genus Icterus, which also contains 30 other species.

Kingdom Order Family Genus Species
Animalia Passeriformes Icteridae Icterus Icterus galbula
  • Baltimore orioles display sexual dimorphism. Adult males tend to be bright orange with black heads.
  • On the other hand, females are yellow to bright orange below, with olive-brown on their heads. Both males and females have white wing bars.
  • Some males of this species tend to have red plumage and not orange. This irregular pigmentation has been recorded multiple times in recent years. It is believed to result from the consumption of berries produced by the honeysuckle plants introduced to the US in the mid-20th century. This phenomenon is best described as diet-induced erythrism.
  • These “so-tolerant-to-humans” Baltimore orioles have basket-like hanging nests that marvel researchers to date. These nests are woven together using thin grass fibers on sycamores, cottonwoods, and other tall trees.

Baltimore Oriole

Where in Massachusetts can you see Baltimore Orioles?
Bird WatchingBaltimore Oriole In MassachusettsBaltimore Orioles can be mostly spotted in the eastern USA near forested parks, abundant tall trees. However, in the winter months, they migrate to central and south America.

Baltimore orioles are likely spotted in the eastern parts of the Commonwealth. Baltimore Orioles will tend to breed in open woodlands, deciduous forests, orchards, riversides, parks, backyards, and forest edges in this region.

Sources
Source: “Words on Birds: Time to prepare for hummingbirds and orioles | Local News | newburyportnews.com”. Accessed June 29, 2021. Link.

7. Bald Eagle

Bald Eagle (Massachusetts Bird)

The bald eagle is one of the birds with a wide distribution in North America.

Kingdom Order Family Genus Species
Animalia accipitriformes Accipitridae Haliaeetus Haliaeetus leucocephalus
  • Although referred to as the bald eagle, this bird is not “really” bald. However, its white-feathered head gives the impression that it is bald.
  • The bald eagles are potent predators known for their talons, which come in handy when hunting for fish. Unfortunately, the bald eagles are notorious for stealing fish from Ospreys!
  • Bald eagles tend to live next to water bodies to gain greater access to their preferred diet, which is fish. In addition, the bald eagle builds the giant nest of North American birds on tall trees.
  • The nest can be large and heavy and can cause them or a tree branch to fall during storms.
  • Bald eagles have excellent eyesight, which allows them to see prey as high as 3km, and successfully hunt. Before 2012, bald eagles were considered to be an endangered species in the Commonwealth.
  • In the wild, bald eagles can live between 20 and 30 years old. In 1782, the bald eagle was picked as a national emblem of the USA.

Bald Eagle

What areas in Massachusetts can you spot bald eagles?
Bird WatchingBald Eagle In MassachusettsThe bald eagles are widespread across Canada and the USA live around water bodies such as rivers.

The bald eagle can be found roaming throughout the Commonwealth. These birds are a common sight in Worcester County, particularly Fitchburg and Rutland. This bird has also been spotted in Wenham, Northampton, and Barnstable.

Sources
Source: “Bald eagles of Worcester county are back”. Accessed June 29, 2021. Link.

8. American Kestrel

American Kestrel (Massachusetts Bird)

The American Kestrel is the smallest falcon which is also referred to as a sparrow hawk.

Kingdom Order Family Genus Species
Animalia Falconiformes Falconidae Falco Falco sparverius
  • These smallest North American birds have been observed to occur only in the New World. The males and females of this species look very different.
  • Male and female species can be distinguished from when they are three weeks old.
  • Males tend to have blue-gray wings while females have red-brown wings. Females are slightly larger compared to males.
  • These kestrels do not build their nests. Instead, they nest in cavities built by other birds or nest in nesting boxes built by humans.
  • These kestrels perform deep-dive into long-grass areas to catch small mammals, reptiles, and other insects (grasshoppers and crickets).

American Kestrel

Where in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts can you see American Kestrels?
Bird WatchingAmerican Kestrel In MassachusettsAmerican Kestrels are found near the northern tree line in Alaska, Canada, and most of North America.

Populations of the American Kestrel can be found in many places in Massachusetts, including but not limited to Bristol/Narragansett Lowlands, Boston Basin, Cape Cod, the Islands, and the Berkshire Highlands.

Sources
Source: “Find a Bird”. Accessed June 29, 2021. Link.

9. Great Blue Heron

Great Blue Heron (Bird of Massachusetts)

The Great Blue Heron is a large wading bird with a long neck, classified under the heron family.

Kingdom Order Family Genus Species
Animalia Pelecaniformes Ardeidae Ardea Ardea herodias
  • These birds can live in both fresh and salty water habitats. The great blue Herons can eat virtually everything that is within their reach.
  • These world’s largest herons nest primarily in trees. However, they can also nest on bushes, the ground, or artificial nest platforms. Despite being large birds, the great blue herons fly at high speed of 30mph.
  • The male and female members of this species look almost the same. The main difference is that the males are slightly larger than the females, and they also tend to have longer ornamental plumes.
  • These birds are closely related to Gray Heron of Eurasia and Cocoi Heron of South America. Interestingly these herons pair up only when in the nest! Other than that, they fly off individually to look for food (mainly fish) for themselves for their young.

Great Blue Heron

Places where you can see Great Blue Herons in Massachusetts
Bird WatchingGreat Blue Heron In MassachusettsThe Great Blue Heron can be spotted across waterbodies within the whole of North America, from marshes to swamps and along sea coasts.

The great blue heron is commonly spotted within the Commonwealth, particularly next to lakes, rivers, and wetlands. This is strategic because being so close to a water body allows them reasonable access to their food. These birds are likely to be found nesting at Wollomonopoag Conservation, Wrentham.

Sources
Source: “WRENTHAM MASSACHUSETTS GUIDE TO OPEN SPACES AND CONSERVATION LAND”. Accessed June 29, 2021. Link.

10. Brown-headed Cowbirds

Brown Headed Cowbird (Bird of Commonwealth)

Brown-headed cowbirds are classified in the blackbird family. The brown-headed cowbirds display sexual dimorphism in terms of color pattern and body size.

Kingdom Order Family Genus Species
Animalia Passeriformes Icteridae Molothrus Molothrus ater
  • Males have dark-brown heads and beautiful iridescent feathers, while females are gray.
  • These best-known brood parasite birds never build their nests; instead, they opt to lay their eggs in other birds’ nests and leave their offspring under the care of other birds.
  • It is believed that these birds were genetically programmed to do this and cannot be faulted. These birds are often social but are surprisingly solitary in the mornings.
  • Brown-headed cowbirds tend to forage on the ground, particularly in open habitats. Unfortunately, due to habitat loss, these cowbirds are spread across entire North America.
  • These birds feed primarily on grass seeds, cereal grains, grasshoppers, and beetles.

Brown Headed Cowbird

Places where you can spot brown-headed cowbirds
Bird WatchingBrown Headed Cowbird In MassachusettsThese birds are widespread across North America except in Alaska and northern Canada.

The brown-headed cowbirds can easily be spotted in Sutton, Massachusetts. Their preferred habitats include savannah, grassland, forest, agricultural land, urban areas, thickets, and riparian zones.

Sources
Source: “Brown-headed Cowbird – Birds in Sutton Massachusetts”. Accessed June 29, 2021. Link.

Despite Massachusetts’ small size (spanning 10, 554 square miles), this state houses over 300 bird species every year. The birds found in the Commonwealth come in a variety of sizes, types, and colors. The birds studied are just examples of the top species one is likely to encounter in the Commonwealth.

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BioExplorer.net. (2021, December 01). Marvellous Birds of Massachusetts. Bio Explorer. https://www.bioexplorer.net/birds-of-massachusetts.html/.
BioExplorer.net. "Marvellous Birds of Massachusetts" Bio Explorer, 01 December 2021, https://www.bioexplorer.net/birds-of-massachusetts.html/.
BioExplorer.net. "Marvellous Birds of Massachusetts" Bio Explorer, December 01 2021. https://www.bioexplorer.net/birds-of-massachusetts.html/.
Key References
  • “Black-Capped Chickadee | National Wildlife Federation”. Accessed June 29, 2021. Link.
  • “”. Accessed June 29, 2021. Link.
  • “Mourning Dove – Zenaida macroura | Wildlife Journal Junior”. Accessed June 29, 2021. Link.
  • “Eastern Phoebes”. Accessed June 29, 2021. Link.
  • “Red-Bellied Woodpecker | National Wildlife Federation”. Accessed June 29, 2021. Link.
  • “DIET-INDUCED PLUMAGE ERYTHRISM IN BALTIMORE ORIOLES AS A RESULT OF THE SPREAD OF INTRODUCED SHRUBS on JSTOR”. Accessed June 29, 2021. Link.
  • “Bald Eagle Fact Sheet”. Accessed June 29, 2021. Link.
  • “American Kestrel | Hawk Mountain Sanctuary: Learn Visit Join”. Accessed June 29, 2021. Link.
  • “Brown-headed Cowbird”. Accessed June 29, 2021. Link.
  • “Department of Conservation and Recreation”. Accessed June 29, 2021. Link.
  • “Forests of Massachusetts, 2017” – USDA. Accessed June 29, 2021. Link.
  • “Common Birds of New England”. Accessed June 29, 2021. Link.
  • “Mourning Dove – Zenaida macroura | Wildlife Journal Junior”. Accessed June 29, 2021. Link.
  • “Bald Eagle Fact Sheet”. Accessed June 29, 2021. Link.


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