Order Apterygiformes (word origin – New Latin) is composed of flightless birds that live on the ground with vestigial wings, long bills, and small eyes. The most famous representative of this order is the New Zealand endemic species – kiwi. Most of the bird types in this order are extinct-related birds of Australia and New Zealand.
Table of Contents
National Bird of New Zealand
Kiwis is the national bird of New Zealand. Kiwis had evolved 70 million years ago from a flightless ancestor. They are closely related to the Ostrich, Emu, and Rhea birds as well as the now extinct New Zealand Moa.
The only 5 living species of kiwi in Apterygiformes order have the following characteristics:
- Kiwis have a small, pear-shaped body.
- One of their prominent features is the presence of robust legs and feet.
- Most of the species is the order have reduced wings about 4-5 centimeters long.
- The wings of kiwis a have a unique structure – each wing has a claw hidden in the plumage.
- Another typical feature of a New Zealand kiwi is a long, flexible beak with a downward curve on end.
- The birds of this order have various colors of the plumage: pink, brown, and grey.
- The bill of the kiwi hides a thick and thorny tongue.
- The feathers in these birds resemble hair: they have a soft base and a thin, thread-like upper part that is hard to the touch.
- Juvenile kiwis have softer feathers than adults.
- Kiwis are endemic to New Zealand and prefer to live in rainforests; but as those areas slowly disappear, they can be found in grasslands, shrubs and even pine forests.
- These birds are primarily nocturnal and sleep during the day.
- Kiwis are known to be carnivorous or omnivorous – they mainly feed on earthworms, beetles, and larvae, but sometimes can eat fruit and leaves.
- Kiwis are monogamous birds; the pairs form for long periods.
- When the time to lay eggs comes, kiwis dig burrows or use natural holes and caves as nests.
- The female in the pair lays one or two large eggs, while the male incubates the eggs.
- The pair raises the hatched chicks together.
Because of their lifestyles, kiwis are incredibly vulnerable due to deforestation, hunting by humans and predation.
There are only 5 species in the kiwi family:
- Southern Brown Kiwi, Apteryx australis
- Little Spotted Kiwi, Apteryx owenii
- Great Spotted Kiwi, Apteryx haastii
- North Island Brown Kiwi, Apterix mantelli
- Okarito Kiwi, Apterix rowi
There are also some extinct species known in this order:
- Proapteryx micromeros.
- North Island Little Spotted Kiwi, Apteryx. o. iredelai
-  – “Family Apterygidae – New Zealand Kiwis”. Accessed May 28, 2019. Link.
-  – “ITIS Standard Report Page: Apterygiformes”. Accessed May 28, 2019. Link.