Table of Contents
What is a Prokaryotic cell?
Prokaryotes are single cell organisms (unicellular) which do not contain organelles or any internal membrane structures. That means that they have a single chromosome and no nucleus but instead they have nucleoid (a circular container that has double-stranded DNA). These organisms belong to domain Prokarya.
What is a Eukaryotic cell?
Eukaryotes are multi-cellular organisms and they contain a nucleus and other organelles encapsulated within membranes. From organization perspective, they belong a domain Eukarya.
Difference Between Prokaryotic And Eukaryotic Cells
The table below summarizes their similarities as well as their differences.
|Origin||Around 3.5 billion years ago||Around 2 billion years ago|
|Size||0.1–5.0µm in diameter||10-100µm in diameter|
|Cellular Organization||Most are unicellular||Most are multicellular|
|Genetic Material||The genetic material (DNA) is suspended in the nucleoid.||The genetic material (DNA)is found in the nucleus|
|Shape Of Genetic Material||DNA is circular||DNA is linear and is packed with histone proteins.|
|Number Of Chromosomes||Only one||Multiple chromosomes are present|
|Nucleus||No nucleus||Has a membrane bound nucleus|
|Plasma Membrane||Made up of peptidoglycan||Made up of phospholipids|
|Cytoplasm||Has cytoplasm||Has cytoplasm|
|Organelles||No organelles wrapped in membranes||Has organelles wrapped in membranes (e.g. mitochondria, Golgi bodies, smooth and rough ER, vacuoles, etc.)|
|Glycocalyz||Present||Only in some|
|Ribosomes||Made up of rRNA and proteins||Made up of rRNA and proteins|
|Asexual Reproduction||Possible through binary fission||Possible through mitosis|
|Examples||Bacteria||Animals, plants, fungi, rhizarians chromoalveolates, and excavates.|